Scientific Discovery

Scientific Discovery


a new achievement arrived at through knowledge of nature and society. Scientific discovery forms the basis of the scientific and technological revolution, giving new direction to the development of science and technology and revolutionizing social production. Discoveries have a special significance at the contemporary stage of scientific and technological progress, when the period of time between a discovery and its practical application is being greatly reduced.

Soviet legislation recognizes discoveries as objects of special legal protection, regarding them as the establishment of previously unknown, objectively existing laws, properties, and phenomena of the material world that bring about a radical change in the level of knowledge (Statute on Discoveries, Inventions, and Efficiency Proposals, 1973; Collected Decrees of the USSR, 1973, no. 19, art. 109).

Discovery is protected by law. In the USSR a state system exists for the disclosure and centralized registration of scientific discoveries and for the establishment of priority of discovery. This system facilitates the wider application of discoveries and stimulates scientists’ interest in fundamental scientific research and the development of scientific creativity. The number of discoveries and inventions made and effectively used is one of the major criteria in evaluating the work of research organizations.

To be credited with a discovery, a person must submit an application to the State Committee for Inventions and Discoveries of the Council of Ministers of USSR. The application must contain experimental or theoretical proof (as a rule, both) of the validity of the scientific proposal. The decision on whether to recognize the discovery is made by the committee in conjunction with the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Discoveries are recorded in a special register and made public; since 1969 the short descriptions of discoveries entered in the State Register of the USSR have been published in the Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia. If the registration of a discovery is not contested over a period of one year, the committee issues the discoverer a diploma, accompanied by remuneration. The diploma attests to state recognition of the discovery, to the priority of the discovery, to the identity of the discoverers, and to the right to remuneration and other rights and benefits granted by law to discoverers.

Diplomas are not given for discoveries in geography, archaeology, and paleontology, for discovery of mineral resources, or for discoveries in the social sciences.

As of June, 1, 1974, 1,420 discoveries had been entered in the State Register of the USSR (kept since 1957), including 17 discoveries in the field of space exploration, 21 discoveries in nuclear physics and plasma physics, and 30 discoveries in biology and medicine. The discoveries were made by 390 Soviet and nine foreign scientists.

Legal protection for discoveries has also been established in several other socialist countries, including Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Mongolia. The Convention on the Establishment of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), which regards discoveries as a special object of law, has created certain preconditions for the introduction of legal protection for discoveries in other countries.


References in periodicals archive ?
Such systems may out-compute all possible hypotheses and may redefine the nature of scientific intuition, hence the scientific discovery process.
The group of Kazakh scientists started developing a revolutionary scientific discovery in 1991.
Chapters consistently evoke the wonder of scientific discovery coupled with the uncertainty of our place in the universe and the questions of faith, destiny, and human identity in a cosmos grown larger by each discovery.
An eloquent writer, Dyson brings to life the wonder of scientific discovery, even for those with less than a passing interest in the subject.
s theological cosmology stimulates a fresh approach to dialogue between theology and science, overcoming science's tendency toward reductionism, while compelling theology to incorporate scientific discovery.
The Big Bang is not so much a standard plot-driven story as it is a staggering reflection upon the meaning of modern scientific discovery in dialogue form.
We now know that nanotech will be the DNA of scientific discovery and new product development in the new millennium.
Jamison piles on the examples, especially in the area of scientific discovery, long after her point has been made.
Hayes's fascination with scientific discovery is matched by his unerring sense for the right phrase, the right anecdote, to draw others into Iris delight and wonder.
The Holy Father teaches clearly that "authentic scientific discoveries never contradict the faith, and the faith never contradicts an authentic scientific discovery," says Mango.
WMAP has begun to lead the way to a new generation of scientific discovery.
This was a period of scientific discovery and classification that revolutionized the way people thought about the universe, the world, themselves, and others.

Full browser ?