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sea,

term used as synonymous with oceanocean,
interconnected mass of saltwater covering 70.78% of the surface of the earth, often called the world ocean. It is subdivided into four (or five) major units that are separated from each other in most cases by the continental masses. See also oceanography.
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, or a subdivision of an ocean (Caribbean Sea, Yellow Sea), or erroneously designating a large salt lakelake,
inland body of standing water occupying a hollow in the earth's surface. The study of lakes and other freshwater basins is known as limnology. Lakes are of particular importance since they act as catchment basins for close to 40% of the landscape, supply drinking water,
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 (Caspian Sea, Dead Sea, Aral Sea).

Sea

 

a part of the world’s oceans that is more or less set apart by land or elevations of the submarine terrain and primarily distinguished from the open ocean by hydrological, meteorological, and climatic conditions. The distinguishing characteristics of a sea result from its position on the margin of the ocean, which means that land has a significant influence on it, and from the limited connection with the open ocean, which is reflected primarily in slower water exchange. Thus, the more a sea is enclosed by land, the more it differs from the ocean. Some open parts of the ocean are arbitrarily called seas—for example, the Sargasso Sea in the northern Atlantic and the Philippine Sea in the western Pacific. Some lakes are called seas (for example, the Aral Sea and Dead Sea), and some seas are called gulfs or bays (Hudson Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Persian Gulf). The diversity of characteristics associated with seas makes their classification very difficult. The most complex classifications belong to German scientists (Krummel [1878] and others); the most complete are the classifications of the Soviet oceanographers lu. M. Shokal’skii (1917), N. N. Zubov and A. V. Everling (1940), and A. M. Muromtsev (1951).

Seas are divided into three groups on the basis of their degree of isolation and their hydrological conditions: internal seas (inland and semienclosed seas), marginal seas, and interisland seas. Inland seas are sometimes divided according to geographical position into intercontinental and intracontinental seas. (See Table 1 for data on some major seas.)

From a geological point of view, the modern seas are young formations. All of them had been established in nearly their present-day outlines in Paleocene-Neocene times and took final shape in the Anthropogenic period. The deepest seas formed at the points of major faults in the earth’s crust (for example, the Mediterranean Sea). Shallow seas appeared when the waters of the ocean flooded the marginal parts of the continents as they subsided or the level of the ocean was uplifted; they are usually located on the continental shelf.

The climates of seas are distinguished by features of greater or lesser continentality, depending on the degree to which they are isolated by land. This is primarily reflected in the magnification of seasonal fluctuations in air and surface water temperature. Some seas are warmer than neighboring open parts of the ocean on the surface and at greater depths (for example, the Red Sea), whereas others are colder (the Sea of Okhotsk); this depends on geographic position. Seas have all the extreme values of salinity of the world’s oceans; in the open part of the Baltic Sea, salinity is only 6.0-8.0 parts per thousand ( whereas in the Red Sea it reaches 41.5׉. Water density in the seas also reaches extreme values, in conformity with the distribution of extreme values of temperature and salinity (density of 1.0100 g/cm3 in the Baltic Sea and 1.0287 g/cm3 in the Red Sea).

Cyclonic currents predominate in seas because of the prevalence of the cyclonic system of winds above the seas and the continental discharge, which is deflected in the corresponding direction by the force of the earth’s rotation.

The organic world of the seas differs from that of the open ocean in a larger percentage of forms not found in other regions (endemics) and often also in a relatively greater variety. Both phenomena are based on the isolation of the sea basins and the differences in conditions in comparatively limited spaces. An additional factor is differences in the geological history of the basins.

REFERENCES

Shokal’skii, lu. M. Okeanografiia, 2nd ed. Leninigrad, 1959.
Muromtsev, A. M. “Opyt raionirovaniia Mirovogo okeana.” Trudy Cos. okeanograficheskogo in-ta, 1951, no. 10.
Leonov, A. K. Regional’naia okeanografiia, part 1. Leningrad, 1960. More [collection]. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from French.)

A. M. MUROMTSEV

What does it mean when you dream about the sea?

See Ocean.

sea

[]
(geography)
A usually salty lake lacking an outlet to the ocean.
(oceanography)
A major subdivision of the ocean.
A heavy swell or ocean wave still under the influence of the wind that produced it.
(geography)

Sea

Season (See AUTUMN, SPRING, SUMMER, WINTER.)
Aegir
god of the seas. [Norse Myth.: Brewer Dictionary, 12]
Amphitrite
queen of the sea; Poseidon’s wife. [Gk. Myth.: NCE, 94]
Bowditch
standard navigational work, American Practical Navigator; so called from its compiler, Nathaniel Bowditch. [Am. Hist.: Hart, 97]
Clement the First, St.
drowned bound to anchor; invoked in marine dedications. [Christian Hagiog.: Attwater, 88]
Cuchulain
mad with grief, he battles the sea. [Irish Myth.: Benét, 239]
Dylan
god of waves, which continually mourn him. [Celtic Myth.: Leach, 332; Jobes, 480]
Jones, Davy
personification of the ocean. [Br. and Am. Marine Slang: Leach, 298]
Manannan
Irish god of the sea. [Irish Folklore: Briggs, 280]
mermaid
half-woman, half-fish; seen by sailors. [western Folklore: Misc.]
Nereids
fifty daughters of Nereus; attendants of Poseidon. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 174]
Nereus
son of Oceanus; father of the Nereids. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 174; Gk. Lit.: Iliad]
Njorthr Scandinavian
god; protector of sailors and ships. [Norse Myth.: Brewer Dictionary, 760]
Oceanids
three thousand daughters of Oceanus and Tethys. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 178]
Salacia
consort of Neptune and goddess of springs. [Rom. Myth.: Kravitz, 208]
Tethys
goddess-wife of Oceanus. [Gk. Myth.: Brewer Dictionary, 1070]
Thetis
sea deity and mother of Achilles. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 269; Gk. Lit.: Odyssey]
Tiamat
primeval sea represented as a dragon goddess, mother of all the gods. [Babylonian Myth.: Benét, 1007]
trident
three-pronged fork; attribute of Poseidon. [Gk. Myth.: Hall, 309]
Triton
gigantic sea deity; son and messenger of Poseidon. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 277; Rom. Lit.: Aeneid]
Varuna
god over the waters. [Vedic Myth.: Leach, 1155]

sea

1. 
a. the mass of salt water on the earth's surface as differentiated from the land
b. (as modifier): sea air
2. 
a. one of the smaller areas of ocean
b. a large inland area of water
3. turbulence or swell, esp of considerable size
4. Astronomy any of many huge dry plains on the surface of the moon

SEA

Sea

(dreams)
Waters generally symbolize the emotions and the unconscious. They could also represent the collective unconscious or your soul experiences. All dream interpretations depend on the individuals personal belief system and life experiences.
References in classic literature ?
For the men were determined to get to the lifeboats, and a small craft would not have had a minute to live in such seas as were running.
Whenever I find myself growing grim about the mouth; whenever it is a damp, drizzly November in my soul; whenever I find myself involuntarily pausing before coffin warehouses, and bringing up the rear of every funeral I meet; and especially whenever my hypos get such an upper hand of me, that it requires a strong moral principle to prevent me from deliberately stepping into the street, and methodically knocking people's hats off--then, I account it high time to get to sea as soon as I can.
He who sits still in a house all the time may be the greatest vagrant of all; but the saunterer, in the good sense, is no more vagrant than the meandering river, which is all the while sedulously seeking the shortest course to the sea.
Then they stood up the mast they called a spear, in its socket by my left foot, and I gripped it with my hand; lastly they hung my shield around my neck, and I was all complete and ready to up anchor and get to sea.
They come in the summer months by hundreds and hundreds of thousands out of the cold gray sea.
During the day a formidable troop of sharks accompanied us, terrible creatures, which multiply in these seas and make them very dangerous.
The pilot had hung out his lights, which was very necessary in these seas crowded with vessels bound landward; for collisions are not uncommon occurrences, and, at the speed she was going, the least shock would shatter the gallant little craft.
He will turn himself into every kind of creature that goes upon the earth, and will become also both fire and water; but you must hold him fast and grip him tighter and tighter, till he begins to talk to you and comes back to what he was when you saw him go to sleep; then you may slacken your hold and let him go; and you can ask him which of the gods it is that is angry with you, and what you must do to reach your home over the seas.
Under his eyelids burned the brazen glories of the tropic seas, or ached the bitter gales of the North Atlantic or far South Pacific; but his memory of them was of mess-room doors stove in, of decks awash and hatches threatened, of undue coal consumption, of long passages, and of fresh paint-work spoiled by unexpected squalls of rain.
Not only their formation, but their situation and aspect remind one of the terrestrial oceans; but again, as on earth, these seas occupy the greater portion of the globe.
We may look back to past ages, as shown in the last chapter, and we find American types then prevalent on the American continent and in the American seas.
How great the risk I realized when I was once more buried beneath the pounding seas and clinging for life to the pinrail at the foot of the foremast.