Full-mouth rehabilitation was undertaken but later, in the permanent dentition, the patient was diagnosed with dilaceration of the maxillary left permanent central incisor, severely crowded maxillary dentition and palatally displaced second premolars
When a non-extraction treatment plan is undertaken, primary molars should be retained with interproximal reduction when necessary to make the tooth width similar to that of the absent second premolar
In other studies, and consistent with our results, the mandibular second premolar
was the most frequently missing tooth, [Grahen, 1956; Serrano, 1972].
The favourable position of the mandibular left second premolar
(35) allowed a conservative approach to be taken, with annual review over the next five years.
Autosomal dominant nonsense, missense, insertions, and deletion mutations in PAX9 have been documented to be responsible for a high incidence of absent permanent molars and in more severe cases missing second premolars
and mandibular central incisors [Matalova et al.
The first and second premolars
and the first and second molars were evaluated for anesthesia efficacy using the pulp-tester.
The injection site is located midpoint on an imaginary line starting at the mid-palatal suture and terminating at the free gingival margin between the first and second premolars
In 1990 the authors detected wear made by a bit on the lower second premolars
Ninety freshly extracted mandibular and maxillary non-carious first and second premolars
without any cracks or fractures and which were extracted for orthodontic reasons were used for this study.
In female skulls, incisors and second premolars
are often broken off, in a number of cases symmetrically.
In the permanent dentition the most commonly involved teeth have been the mandibular first permanent molars, followed by the maxillary first permanent molars, the mandibular second premolars
, and then the mandibular second permanent molars.
Other early examples of bit wear have been observed by Anthony and Brown on about 10% of the horse lower second premolars
at the site of Botai in northern Kazakhstan, dated c.