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Seebeck effect:see thermoelectricitythermoelectricity,
direct conversion of heat into electric energy, or vice versa. The term is generally restricted to the irreversible conversion of electricity into heat described by the English physicist James P.
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The generation of a temperature-dependent electromotive force (emf) at the junction of two dissimilar metals. This phenomenon provides the physical basis for the thermocouple. In 1821, T. J. Seebeck discovered that near a closed circuit composed of two linear conductors of two different metals a magnetic needle would be deflected if, and only if, the two junctions were at different temperatures, and that if the temperatures of the two junctions were reversed the direction of deflection would also be reversed. He investigated 35 different metals and arranged them in a series such that at a hot junction, current flows from a metal earlier in the series to a later one. See Electromotive force (emf)
A thermocouple consists of a pair of wires of dissimilar metals, joined at the ends. One junction is kept at an accurately known cold temperature, usually that of melting ice, and the other is used for the measurement of an unknown temperature, by measuring the emf generated as a result of the Seebeck effect. See Thermocouple, Thermoelectricity