Seedless Fruits

Seedless Fruits

 

parthenocarpic fruits, fruits which develop without fertilization and do not contain seeds.

Seedless fruits are found on many plants, including a number of vegetable and fruit plants (some varieties of cucumbers, gooseberries, grapes, mandarin oranges, pears, figs, persimmons, bananas, and others). In certain instances this is a normal phenomenon (mandarin oranges, seedless varieties of pears and grapes, and bananas); in others it is found in the accidental absence of fertilization together with normal development of the fruit (certain varieties of apples); and sometimes it is a result of parasites burrowing into the seed bud. Plants which carry seedless fruits do not require pollination. This fact is extremely vital for cultivation in closed soil (in greenhouses and hothouses), for the breeding of introduced plants which have no pollinators among the local fauna, and for plants blooming in bad weather that prevents the flight of pollinators.

The seedless fruits of several plants surpass the taste qualities of the seed-bearing fruits and have a number of advantages for their industrial processing and use as food. For this reason, the breeding of seedless varieties of fruit is of great interest. Species having only seedless fruits either reproduce vegetatively or must be pollinated artificially to obtain seeds (for example, in seedless cucumbers). Triploid forms (in watermelons) or the processing of the ovaries and whole plants with growth substances (in hothouse cultures of tomatoes) are used to get seedless fruits.

D. A. TRANKOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Hamik is a small, sweet pepper with virtually seedless fruits that mature from green to orange.
Our consumption of seedless fruits and veggies is on the rise, trading flavor and fertility for convenience, So many foods are being genetically manipulated to be infertile, bearing sterile seeds.
Researchers in Italy have used genetically modified eggplants to produce seedless fruits.
Consumers have a special liking for seedless fruits for two reasons.
This approach produces seedless fruit, but it is expensive because of the cost of the IAA and the labor required to treat the flower buds.
The Italian investigators used genetic engineering to make eggplants produce seedless fruit spontaneously.
It has very fleshy, almost seedless fruits with a very low water content, which makes it ideal for sauces.
Mutagenesis-derived crops and traits are produced around the globe in a number of food categories, including food grains (rice, oats and durum wheat), vegetable oil crops (sunflower, canola and flax), beer ingredients (barley, hops and yeast) and seedless fruits (grapes and citrus fruits).
Mutagenesis-derived crops and traits are produced around the globe in a number of food categories, including grains (rice, oats, durum wheat), vegetable oil crops (sunflower, canola, flax), beer ingredients (barley, hops, yeast) and seedless fruits (grapes, citrus fruits).