High school workers in cities with more college graduates earn more even in panel studies that presumably do not have the selection effects
that might contaminate the comparisons across cities.
Carter and Irons (2001), Frank and Schulze (2000), and Frey and Meier (2003) all employ controls for field of study, year in school, and an interaction term as an econometric technique to differentiate selection effects
from learning effects.
Thus, second, we assume that the insurer is able to perfectly estimate and thus account for adverse selection effects
and consequently to take this information into account when determining benefits and premiums of annuitants.
You have to find some way of controlling for selection effects
2009), allow for greater control of selection effects
and thus better leverage on likely causal connections.
selection-accounting framework adjusts for selection effects
However, direct tests of this hypothesis are challenging given the lack of Medicare Part A and B claims for MAPD enrollees and the potential for significant unobserved selection effects
in Part D enrollment choices.
In the context of her study of US trade policymaking, she uses an original dataset of official US reports on trade barriers of other countries as potential targets of disputes, and thus deals with selection effects
directly rather than with econometric crutches.
Recent literature switches from this traditional view and explores potential advantageous selection effects
of health insurance (Finkelstein and McGarry 2006; Fang, Keane, and Silverman 2008; Doiron, Jones, and Savage 2008; and references therein).
We find that higher wages attract more able applicants as measured by their IQ, personality, and proclivity towards public sector work - ie, we find no evidence of adverse selection effects
on motivation; higher wage offers also increased acceptance rates, implying a labour supply elasticity of around 2 and some degree of monopsony power.
ii) Defendant selection effects
(15): Defendants might file MTDs in cases that they would have answered under Conley, and some of these new MTDs will be granted.
The article contends that the troublesome feature of all these cases is not self-location but selection effects