Self-Stimulation


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Self-Stimulation

 

a motor conditioned reflex by which an animal uses a lever to stimulate electrically the lower brain centers, including the rewarding center and the centers of stimulation and satisfaction. This phenomenon was discovered in rats by the American scientist J. Olds and the Canadian scientist P. Milner in 1954 and was subsequently reproduced in cats, dogs, dolphins, monkeys, and other animals. In many cases it was possible to show a connection between self-stimulation and the motivations of hunger, thirst, and sex, which made it possible to study self-stimulation as an artificial (imaginary) satiation. No such connection was observed in other cases, which indicated that the nerve apparatus of positive emotions in the hypothalamus and other parts of the brain was to a certain degree morphologically and physiologically independent. Human patients whose lower brain centers were stimulated for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes often reported feeling strong positive emotions and a sense of satisfaction and elation. This finally confirmed the relationship between self-stimulation and the lower brain centers of positive emotions.

Self-stimulation as a specific form of behavior has some characteristic features. When their satisfying brain centers are first stimulated by an electric current, animals start making searching movements, sniffing, and intensively exploring the environment. They quickly learn to receive self-stimulation by pressing the lever to close the electric circuit. Prolonged stimulation of the centers of satisfaction produces an emotionally negative response, and the animal will terminate stimulation by moving away from the lever. When the electric current is completely turned off, the self-stimulation conditioned reflex is usually quickly forgotten, and after several trials the animal ceases to press on the lever. Thus, self-stimulation does not become a habit, and the animal readily tolerates its cessation.

Changes in the electrical activity of the brain and the functions of the internal organs, for example, breathing, pulse rate, and blood pressure, during self-stimulation significantly differ from the aftereffects of the stimulation of the centers of the negative emotions of fear and pain. It is therefore possible to speak of the special state of the emotionally positive activation of the highest divisions of the central nervous system. Self-stimulation is a valuable experimental model with which to study the physiology of positive emotions and their effect on the activity of the brain and the body as a whole.

REFERENCES

Bekhtereva, N. P. Neirofiziologicheskie aspekty psikhicheskoi deiatel’nosti cheloveka. Leningrad, 1971.
Mikhailova, N. G. “Elektroentsefalograficheskie i vegetativnye korreliaty reaktsii samorazdrazheniia,” Zhurnal vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti, 1971, vol. 21, issue 1.
Milner, P. Fiziologicheskaia psikhologiia. Moscow, 1973. Pages 470–513. (Translated from English.)
Sem-Jacobsen, C. W. Depth-Electrographic Stimulation of the Human Brain and Behavior. Springfield, 111. [1968].

P. V. SIMONOV

References in periodicals archive ?
As a further benefit, the enactment of clitoral self-stimulation can reasonably be expected to contribute to orgasmic consistency within heterosexual encounters, which may ameliorate a concern that is frequently reported by women (see Fisher, Boroditsky & Morris, 2004; LoPiccolo & Stock, 1986).
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Although infant self-stimulation has been identified as a common normal behavior and part of healthy development, many parents and even medical professionals remain ignorant about it, as demonstrated by an article in Pediatrics.
In automatic positive reinforcement the reinforcing consequences maintaining the behavior may include self-stimulation (finger sucking is reinforced by tactile stimulation) or external stimulation (plate spinning is reinforced by the sound of a plate spinning on the table).
Self-stimulation by pressure can work wonders when we understand the systems that each energy meridian governs and how to choose the most effective acu-points.
Although the "self-inflicted" injury exclusion did not work for the City of Arvada insurance plan in connection with the Cary suit arising out of attempted suicide, the exclusion suffered more charitable judicial treatment from two judges of a federal appeals court panel in a case arising out of self-stimulation through intentional oxygen deprivation, a situation seemingly further removed from self-injury.
7 (bipolar, 24 pulses, 60 Hz, 120 [mu]A) is also reinforcing to the rat because it will self-administer such stimulation trains in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the intracranial self-stimulation (ICS) paradigm.
or if they don't exist with self-stimulation, if she has a history of abuse or sexual trauma, if she has a psychiatric history, if she's experiencing depression or stress, if her partner has sexual dysfunction, or if she has relationship issues, those are all signs that she should have further psychosexual evaluation, and that Viagra may not resolve it," she explained.
or if they don't exist with self-stimulation, if she has a history of abuse or sexual trauma, if she has a psychiatric history if she's experiencing depression or stress, if her partner has sexual dysfunction, or if she has relationship issues, those are all signs that she should have further psychosexual evaluation, and that Viagra may not resolve it," she explained.
Leaning 52 20 Stroking 26 8 Kissing 23 6 Hugging 7 2 Self-Touching Hair 21 38 Hands 11 29 Location on Body Head and Shoulders 45 21 Arms and Hands 25 38 Purpose of Touch Affection 43 11 Self-stimulation 8 41 Activities Eating 13 29 Drinking 19 31 Smoking 30 7 Talking 79 47 Affect Facial Positive 37 21 Facial Negative 7 11 Verbal Positive 34 23 Verbal Negative 5 20 Physical Positive 62 12 Physical Negative 2 16
It has been hypothesized that the hallucination is the person's attempt to provide self-stimulation - a form of communication, if you will.