chocolate

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chocolate,

general term for the products of the seeds of the cacaocacao
, tropical tree (Theobroma cacao) of the family Sterculiaceae (sterculia family), native to South America, where it was first domesticated and was highly prized by the Aztecs. It has been extensively cultivated in the Old World since the Spanish conquest.
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 or chocolate tree, used for making beverages or confectionery. The flavor of chocolate depends not only on the quality of the cocoa nibs (the remainder after the seeds are fermented, dried, and roasted) and the flavorings but also on a complex process of grinding, heating, and blending. The chocolate liquid formed in an intermediate stage is used in the confectionery trade as a covering for fruits, candies, or cookies, or the process may be continued and the resulting smooth mass of chocolate molded, cooled, and packaged as candy. It should be hard enough to snap when broken, have a mellow flow when melting, be free of gritty particles, and have a rich, dark color and an aromatic smell and flavor.

A chocolate beverage was known to the Aztecs and through Spanish explorers found (c.1500) its way into Europe; the Maya also made such a drink, perhaps as early as 900 B.C., and may also have used chocolate in prepared food. In 1657 a shop was opened in London where chocolate was sold at luxury prices. It became a fashionable drink; many shops sprang up to become centers of political discussion and grow into famous clubs, such as the Cocoa Tree. Chocolate was first manufactured in the United States at Milton Lower Mills, near Dorchester, Mass., in 1765. About 1876, M. D. Peter of Vevey, Switzerland, perfected a process of making milk chocolate by combining the cocoa nib, sugar, fat, and condensed milk. The United States has the world's largest chocolate-manufacturing industry.

Bibliography

See B. W. Minifie, Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery (1970); S. Beckett, Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use (1982); J. G. Brenner, The Emperors of Chocolate (1999); M. Norton, Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures: A History of Tobacco and Chocolate in the Atlantic World (2008).

Chocolate

 

a confectionery obtained by processing cacao beans with sugar and other food products. Chocolate was long used as a beverage in Mexico. During the 16th century, the Spanish brought cacao beans from Mexico to Europe.

A distinction is made between natural chocolate, which contains only cacao products (cacao beans and cocoa butter) and sugar, and chocolate with additives, such as dried milk, coffee, and nuts. Depending on the fineness of the particles, chocolate is subdivided into plain and dessert chocolate. Chocolate confectioneries often contain various fillings. The fat content of chocolate is 35–37 percent; the caloric value is 2,240 kilojoules, or 540 kilocalories, per 100 g.

After cleaning, sorting, and roasting, cacao beans are broken up into nibs, which are then ground into a plastic liquor. The liquor is then pressed to obtain cocoa butter. Chocolate is obtained by mixing the liquor, cocoa butter, sugar (usually powdered), and the necessary flavorings and aromatic additives. This mixture is then ground until the size of the solid particles does not exceed 20 micrometers. The resulting mass is mixed once more with cocoa butter and cooled to 30°–31°C, whereupon it is ready to be produced into plain chocolate or chocolate-coated candy by chocolate-molding equipment. To produce dessert chocolate, which has improved flavor and aroma, the chocolate mass is subjected to additional processing, at a temperature of 70°C for an average of three nights and days, before it is molded.

Chocolate is manufactured in the form of blocks, various figures, and round medallions; chocolate confectioneries are produced as bars or assorted candies. Natural chocolate can be stored up to six months, and mixed chocolate, up to three months.

G. A. MARSHALKIN

What does it mean when you dream about chocolate?

For most people chocolate is considered an indulgence. Chocolate in a dream may therefore symbolize that the dreamer feels the need to be rewarded and deserves special treatment. Alternatively, perhaps the dreamer has been indulging in too many excesses and needs to practice some restraint.

chocolate

[′chak·lət]
(food engineering)
A dark, bitter, or sweet product that is manufactured from chocolate liquor (or nibs), sugar, and cocoa butter.

chocolate

a. a moderate to deep brown colour
b. (as adjective): a chocolate carpet
References in periodicals archive ?
Combine half-and-half, semisweet chocolate, and white chocolate over low heat, and cook, stirring constantly, until chocolates are melted and mixture is smooth.
FRENCH CHOCOLATE MOUSSE 6 ounces semisweet chocolate 2 tablespoons water 1/4 cup sugar 1/2 cup unsalted butter, cut into pieces 6 egg yolks 1 tablespoon vanilla extract, rum, or brandy 1 cup chilled whipping cream, whipped 6 egg whites, stiffly beaten
In another bowl or pan, melt white chocolate as directed for semisweet chocolate.
You can also delete the white chocolate and double the amount of semisweet chocolate, melting it all together and spreading in pan, then sprinkling with chopped candy of choice.
79 for a 12-ounce bag) and Nestle Toll House Semisweet Chocolate Chunks ($2.
Place 3 ounces coarsely chopped bittersweet or semisweet chocolate, white pastel coating, white chocolate, or 1/4 cup semisweet baking chips in the top of a double boiler.
8 ounces semisweet chocolate About 2 tablespoons solid shortening
GLAZE: Melt 1 1/2 cups semisweet chocolate chips, 1/4 cup water and 2 tablespoons butter over low heat, stirring constantly until chocolate mixture is smooth.
Today the company continues to prosper, offering semisweet chocolate squares, bittersweet chocolate baking squares, premium white chocolate baking squares and German's Sweet Chocolate, along with unsweetened baking chocolate squares and Baker's Dipping Chocolate.
3/4 to 1 cup coarsely chopped semisweet chocolate OR chocolate chips
Dip half of the cooled macaroons in melted semisweet chocolate or spread the bottoms with chocolate.
It features a graham cracker crust with a thin layer of chocolate and marshmallow that's topped with a pudding-like semisweet chocolate marshmallow filling and then whipped cream with a drizzling of chocolate sauce.