Serfs


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Serfs

 

a category of direct producers in medieval Western Europe. During the formative period of feudalism there were two types of serfs—those who constituted a stratum of late classical Roman society, occupying a position similar to that of Roman slaves, and those who constituted a stratum of Teutonic society, with their actual status determined by the relations of patriarchal slavery among the Germans. During the period of developed feudalism the serfs constituted a category of dependent feudal peasants extremely limited in their civil and economic rights.

References in periodicals archive ?
According to the chronicle ofCypriot historian Leontios Makhairas, the serfs rebelled against the Franks and established Re Alexis as a king in Lefkonoiko -- the word Re means king inProvencal and Italian -- and captains in Morphou, Limassol, Lefka and Peristerona.
Eddie provocatively challenges our understanding of serfdom in Prussia between 1648 and 1848 by asserting that the relationship between noble and serf was mutually beneficial.
The eleven million employee-owners of the twelve thousand companies in the United States with stock ownership plans are not among the serf class, nor are the indigenous peoples of Alaska, who are owners of the Alaskan native corporations that were established by the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, the second most important piece of economic legislation ever passed by the U.
Second, imagine a society similar to the one just discussed except that all of its members believe that the serfs have no right to speak in the noble's presence.
But here's the difference, and it really is a crucial one: a union baron can be toppled if enough serfs vote for someone else when Mr Scary Boss is up for re-election.
Under such a regime, people were divided into three major strata, with about 90 percent of the population slaves or serfs.
As the 'noble' ones calling all the shots in this industry, where do we see you exercising your responsibility to the serfs in your fiefdom?
They also were not about to get rid of their serfs, who farmed the land and were the backbone of Russian agriculture.
The concept of 'common face' which joins two parallel SERFs or a SERF to a face parallel to it was introduced in the previous section.
And it is here, in large part, that Stites finds the answer to the conundrum of how it was that relatively-backward Russia suddenly exploded so spectacularly onto the global arts stage after the serf emancipation of 1861.
In scripture indebted Egyptians, Canaanites, and Hebrews sold themselves into servitude to keep from starving while crippling debt shackled medieval serfs and 19th-century sharecroppers to their masters' lands and imprisoned the urban poor in workhouses.
The odnodvortsy did not own serfs and their land grants were modest, so that they were expected to farm them themselves.