Procurement was made under the Programa de RecuperacEuo Socioambiental da Serra do Mar
e Sistema de Mosaicos da Mata Atlantica (Social and Environmental Recovery Programme of the Serra do Mar
and Atlantic Forest) , following a tender issued by the State of San Paulo Forest Conservation which selected the GrandNew as the best platform among competing types.
These legally protected areas comprise some of the few largest Atlantic rainforest remnants, including the Serra do Mar and Serra de Paranapiacaba mountain ranges (Table 1).
At least four populations were found in Sao Paulo State: two in the inshore islands, a small population in Serra do Mar massif, and a larger one in Serra de Paranapiacaba massif (Fig.
These densities were higher than in the continuous forests of the Serra do Mar massif, which is the largest remnant Atlantic rainforest.
Density estimates of Black-fronted Piping Guans in the Serra do Mar massif were the lowest obtained in our study (<0.
2102 (NY); Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar
, Nucleo Curucutu, 29/X/ 1998, Garcia & Alonso 1640 (SP); Ilha Vitoria, Litoral Norte, 30/III/1965, Gomes 2660 (SP); Sao Paulo: Reserva da Cidade Universitaria, 23[degrees]33'S, 46[degrees]43'W, 20/XII/1997, Groppo Jr.
The vicariant events were related to the uplifting of the Serra do Mar and the Serra da Mantiqueira, and the appearance of large rivers and climatic changes.
The areas of endemism basically follow Pinto-da-Rocha (2002) with some modifications: the component Santa Catarina (SC) was split from Parana (PR); the southern region of Sao Paulo (SSP), located in the Vale do Ribeira was split from the Serra do Mar of Sao Paulo; and the Serra dos Orgaos (Org) was split from the Serra do Espinhaco (SEsp).
It is possible to identify a great cluster composed of localities of Serra do Mar of Rio de Janeiro, Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra da Bocaina.
The Serra do Mar of the State of Sao Paulo was split from the continuous remaining part just south of Sao Paulo, as this area showed affinities with southern Brazil from which it is separated by the Ribeira do Iguape River.
The overnight journey from the port to Campinas is not an easy one since the 20-car convoy has to climb the 800meter-high Serra do Mar
, which protects the coast.
In Brazil, the cost of an armed escort can double the expense of moving a box of goods from the main port of Santos up the Serra do Mar
mountain to Sao Paulo.