settlement house

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settlement house,

neighborhood welfare institution generally in an urban slum area, where trained workers endeavor to improve social conditions, particularly by providing community services and promoting neighborly cooperation. The idea was developed in mid-19th-century England when such social thinkers as Thomas Hill GreenGreen, Thomas Hill,
1836–82, English idealist philosopher. Educated at Oxford, he was associated with the university all his life. He was professor of moral philosophy there from 1878 until his death.
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, John RuskinRuskin, John,
1819–1900, English critic and social theorist. During the mid-19th cent. Ruskin was the virtual dictator of artistic opinion in England, but Ruskin's reputation declined after his death, and he has been treated harshly by 20th-century critics.
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, and Arnold ToynbeeToynbee, Arnold
, 1852–83, English economic historian, philosopher, and reformer. After his graduation in 1878 he was a tutor at Balliol College, Oxford, and was active in reform work outside the university, particularly among the London poor.
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 (1852–83) urged university students to settle in poor neighborhoods, where they could study and work to better local conditions. The pioneer establishment was Toynbee Hall, founded in 1884 in London under the leadership of Samuel Augustus BarnettBarnett, Samuel Augustus
, 1844–1913, English clergyman and social worker. As vicar of St. Jude's, Whitechapel, in the slums of London, he pioneered in the social settlement movement.
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. Before long, similar houses were founded in many cities of Great Britain, the United States, and continental Europe. Some of the more famous settlement houses in the United States have been Hull House and Chicago Commons, Chicago; South End House, Boston; and the University Settlement, Henry Street Settlement, and Greenwich House, New York City. Settlements serve as community, education, and recreation centers, particularly in densely populated immigrant neighborhoods. Sometimes known as social settlements, they are also called neighborhood houses, neighborhood centers, or community centers. The settlement house differs from other social welfare agencies; the latter provide specific services, while the former is aimed at improving neighborhood life as a whole. Its role has gradually altered as some of its varied functions have been assumed by state and municipal authorities and by other organizations. Kindergartens, formerly an important adjunct of the settlement house, are now operated by the public schools; municipal health departments have taken over its clinical services; and labor unions now sponsor educational and recreational activities for workers. The early leaders of settlement houses in the United States met from time to time and in 1911 founded the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers; Jane AddamsAddams, Jane,
1860–1935, American social worker, b. Cedarville, Ill., grad. Rockford College, 1881. In 1889, with Ellen Gates Starr, she founded Hull House in Chicago, one of the first social settlements in the United States (see settlement house).
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 served as the first president. In 1926 the International Federation of Settlements and Neighbourhood Centres was established to coordinate community work on an international level.


See L. Pacey, ed., Readings in the Development of Settlement Work (1951); A. Hillman, Neighborhood Centers Today (1960); A. F. Davis, Spearheads for Reform (1967, repr. 1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
Finally, the settlement movement itself has changed unilaterally and unlawfully the rules established by successive Israeli governments by setting up unauthorized settlement outposts when government approval of settlement construction has not been forthcoming.
The seminary, a prestigious centre of Jewish studies, largely produced the ideology behind the Jewish settlement movement in the West Bank and educated its leaders.
The religious centre was behind the Jewish settlement movement in the West Bank, which led thousands of hardline Israelis to occupy and refuse to leave Palestinian territory.
The school is in an area known as centre of Jewish studies and linked to the leadership of the settlement movement in the Palestinian West Bank.
Their topics include the sociology of the settlement movement from 1885 to 1930, interpretations by Edward A.
In addition to exploring aspects of financing the University of Chicago, Bachin also looks at the contending public values over the role and function of the University during the Progressive era, particularly in the face of professors such as John Dewey, among others, who were arguing for greater engagement with the civic life of the community, particularly as it related to the settlement movement.
The American-born Gorenberg--who moved to Israel around the time settler patron Menachem Begin was elected--meticulously recounts the genesis of the settlement movement, tracking a sort of creeping chaos.
Prime minister Ariel Sharon, once the champion of Israel's settlement movement, is first Israeli leader to evacuate land Palestinians claim for a future state.
Closer in its ideals to the Arts and Crafts, and less extreme in its challenge to the existing order, was the Settlement Movement, whose birth also formally occurred in 1884, when Toynbee Hall was opened in December.
He also came to work with Jane Addams and many of the people involved in the settlement movement.
Hebron has attracted some of the most reactionary elements of the settlement movement.