Seventh Congress of Soviets of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Seventh Congress of Soviets of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics


held in Moscow from Jan. 28 to Feb. 6, 1935, and attended by 2,022 delegates with a casting vote, including 940 workers, 473 peasants, and 609 office workers, and 540 delegates with a consultative vote. By party affiliation, there were 1,498 Communists, 99 Komsomol members, and 425 nonparty delegates. The agenda included the Report From the Government of the USSR, by V. M. Molotov; the Report of the People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry, by G. K. Ordzhonikidze; and the Report On Measures to Strengthen and Develop Livestock Raising, by M. A. Chernov, people’s commissar of agriculture, and M. I. Kalmanovich, people’s commissar for grain and livestock sovkhozes. Also on the agenda were the Report on Constitutional Questions, by A. S. Enukidze; the report On Certain Amendments in the Soviet Constitution, by V. M. Molotov; and elections to the Central Executive Committee of the USSR.

The report from the government summarized the results of socialist construction and outlined its future prospects. The Seventh Congress of Soviets of the USSR unanimously recognized the fact that the socialist sector had become the dominant sector in the Soviet economy, and it approved the foreign and domestic policies of the Soviet government. The report of the People’s Commissariat of Heavy Industry noted that the successful fulfillment of the first five-year plan ensured the further growth of the industrial power of the USSR. New branches of industry had been created, including the aircraft, motor-vehicle, tractor, modern machine-tool, and chemical industries. The Seventh Congress of Soviets approved an elaborate resolution on measures for strengthening and developing livestock raising, including the mechanization of labor on livestock farms, the establishment of new, socialist forms of large-scale livestock raising; the extensive training of personnel; and qualitative improvement of veterinary and livestock management services.

The report on constitutional questions pointed out the necessity of introducing certain amendments in the 1924 Constitution. On Feb. 1, 1935, the Plenum of the Central Committee of the ACP(B) had expressed its support for the further democratization of the electoral system and for the introduction of a constitution “corresponding to the present balance of class forces in the USSR” (KPSS ν rezoliutsiiakh ____8th ed.,’ vol. 5, 1971, p. 205). The congress’ decision to further democratize the electoral system was of great political importance. Equal voting rights replaced unequal rights, multistage elections gave way to direct elections, and the secret ballot replaced open balloting. The Seventh Congress of Soviets empowered the Central Executive Committee of the USSR to elect a constitutional commission. It also installed a new Central Executive Committee. The 607-member Soviet of the Union was elected, and the 150-member Soviet of Nationalities was confirmed.


S”ezdy Sovetov SSSR, soiuznykh i avtonomnykh Sovetskikh Sotsialisti-
cheskikh Respublik: Sb. dokumentov, vol. 3. Moscow, 1960.
VII s”ezd Sovetov SSSR: Stenograficheskii otchet. Moscow, 1935.