Sewage collection systems

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Sewage collection systems

Configurations of inlets, catch basins, manholes, pipes, drains, mains, holding basins, pump stations, outfalls, controls, and special devices to move wastewaters from points of collection to discharge. The system of pipes and appurtenances is also known as the sewerage system. Wastewaters may be sanitary sewage, industrial wastes, storm runoff, or combined flows.

A sewer is a constructed ditch or channel designed to carry away liquid-conveyed wastes discharged by houses and towns. Modern sewer systems typically are gravity-flow pipelines installed below the ground surface in streets and following the ground slope. The depth of cover over pipelines is controlled by factors such as the location of rock and ground water, the ability to receive flows from all buildings by gravity, depth to frost line, economics of maintaining gravity flow as compared with pumping, and location and elevation of other existing utilities and infrastructures.

Sewerage systems are designed to carry the liquid wastes smoothly, without deposition, with a minimum of wasted hydraulic energy, and at minimum costs for excavation and construction; they should provide maximum capacity for future populations and flows. Engineered construction, controlled by availability of time, material, personnel, and finances, affects the choice and use of individual components within sewerage systems. See Industrial health and safety, Sewage, Sewage disposal