Sexually transmitted diseases


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Related to Sexually transmitted diseases: Sexually transmitted infections

Sexually transmitted diseases

Infections that are acquired and transmitted by sexual contact. Although virtually any infection may be transmitted during intimate contact, the term sexually transmitted disease is restricted to conditions that are largely dependent on sexual contact for their transmission and propagation in a population. The term venereal disease is literally synonymous with sexually transmitted disease but traditionally is associated with only five long-recognized diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and donovanosis). Sexually transmitted diseases occasionally are acquired nonsexually (for example, by newborn infants from their mothers, or by clinical or laboratory personnel handling pathogenic organisms or infected secretions), but in adults they are virtually never acquired by contact with contaminated intermediaries such as towels, toilet seats, or bathing facilities. However, some sexually transmitted infections (such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, viral hepatitis, and cytomegalovirus infection) are transmitted primarily by sexual contact in some settings and by nonsexual means in others. See Gonorrhea, Syphilis

The sexually transmitted diseases may be classified in the traditional fashion, according to the causative pathogenic organisms, as follows:

  • Bacteria
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Treponema pallidum
  • Mycoplasma genitalium
  • Mycoplasma hominis
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum
  • Haemophilis ducreyi
  • Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
  • Salmonella species
  • Shigella species
  • Campylobacter species
  • Viruses
  • Human immunodeficiency viruses
  • (types 1 and 2)
  • Herpes simplex viruses (types 1 and 2)
  • Hepatitis viruses B, C, D
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Human papillomaviruses
  • Molluscum contagiosum virus
  • Kaposi sarcoma virus
  • Protozoa
  • Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Giardia lamblia
  • Cryptosporidium and related species
  • Ectoparasites
  • Phthirus pubis (pubic louse)
  • Sarcoptes scabiei (scabies mite)

Sexually transmitted diseases may also be classified according to clinical syndromes and complications that are caused by one or more pathogens as follows:

  • 1. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related conditions
  • 2. Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • 3. Female infertility
  • 4. Ectopic pregnancy
  • 5. Fetal and neonatal infections
  • 6. Complications of pregnancy
  • 7. Neoplasia
  • 8. Human papillomavirus and genital warts
  • 9. Genital ulcer-inguinal lymphadenopathy syndromes

  • 10. Lower genital tract infection in women
  • 11. Viral hepatitis and cirrhosis
  • 12. Urethritis in men
  • 13. Late syphilis
  • 14. Epididymitis
  • 15. Gastrointestinal infections
  • 16. Acute arthritis
  • 17. Mononucleosis syndromes
  • 18. Molluscum contagiosum
  • 19. Ectoparasite infestation
See Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), Drug resistance, Hepatitis

Most of these syndromes may be caused by more than one organism, often in conjunction with nonsexually transmitted pathogens. They are listed in the approximate order of their public health impact.

References in periodicals archive ?
According to therapy class sexually transmitted diseases drug market can be segmented into antibiotics, antiviral, vaccines and others.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are caused by infections that are passed from one person to another during sexual contact.
The best way of prevention of sexually transmitted diseases is to educate children and not to avoid getting involved in risky sexual behaviour.
Sex partner selection, social networks, and repeat sexually transmitted infections in young men: a preliminary report, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2006, 33(1): 18-21; Catania JA, Binson D and Stone V, Relationship of sexual mixing across age and ethnic groups to herpes simplex virus-2 among unmarried heterosexual adults with multiple sexual partners, Health Psychology, 1996, 15(5):362-370; Lawrence B et al.
At the same time, suspicion of a sexually transmitted disease causes immense social turmoil.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Workshop Summary, Scientific Evidence on Condom Effectiveness for Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Prevention, July 20, 2001.
Most recently in Illinois, lawmakers have proposed a measure to guarantee state funding for "abstinence-based" sex education, which would promote abstinence as the best way to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancies but would also provide age-appropriate information about condoms and birth control.
adults, ages 18 to 35, say they take "necessary" steps to protect themselves against sexually transmitted diseases, 82 percent of participants said they don't use protection during oral sex.
The card gives advice on preventing sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies.
With that in mind, Graham says, the company worked with the CDC on an advertising campaign to raise awareness about sexually transmitted diseases after the San Francisco department of public health reported an outbreak of syphilis in 1999 among 14 men who met in an AOL chat room called SFM4M.
When a school provides comprehensive sex-education, students are armed with as much info as possible--including how and where to get birth control and information about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
In addition to menstrual complaints, adolescent health specialists these days are likely to encounter sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among teenage girls, with one study finding as many as one in five adolescent girls had an undiagnosed STD.

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