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Shalmaneser I. Shalmaneser I, according to most historians, was king from approximately 1280 B.C. to 1260 B.C. Shalmaneser continued the struggle with the state of Mitanni begun by his father, Adadnirari I. Shalmaneser routed the Mitanni troops and the Hittite and Aramaean auxiliary detachments, thereby in effect destroying the Mitanni state. The advance of Shalmaneser’s troops to Carchemish threatened the Hittites and Egypt, thus hastening the conclusion of peace between the Hittite king Hattusilis III and the Egyptian pharaoh Rameses II; it also brought about a renewal of the Hittite-Babylonian alliance. In the north, Shalmaneser I inflicted a defeat upon an alliance of Urartian tribes.
Shalmaneser III. Shalmaneser III was king from 859 B.C. to 825 or 824 B.C. Son of and successor to Ashurnasirpal II, he conquered the kingdom of the Bit Adini on the middle Euphrates and exacted tribute from a number of states in northern Syria. Shalmaneser’s attempt to take possession of the Kingdom of Damascus ended in failure. He received tribute from Phoenician trading cities and from the Kingdom of Israel. From the Zagros Mountains, he carried out pillaging raids to the east against Media as well as against Urartu.
Shalmaneser V. Shalmaneser V was king from 727 B.C. to 722 B.C. Son of and successor to Tiglath-pileser III, he was also king of Babylon (under the name of Ululai). He conducted military operations against Tyre and the Kingdom of Israel. Shalmaneser V abolished the privileges and immunities of the temple cities (Ashur, Sippar, Nippur, and Babylon), substituting taxes and obligations. He was overthrown in 722 B.C. during a siege of Samaria.