Shapur I

(redirected from Shapour I)

Shapur I

(shäpo͞or`) or

Sapor I

(sä`pôr), d.272, king of Persia (241–72), son and successor of Ardashir I, of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty. He was an able warrior king. Although he was defeated by the Roman emperor, Gordian III, in 242, he halted Gordian's advance at Misiche in 244. Gordian's successor, PhilipPhilip
or Philip the Arabian
(Marcus Julius Philippus), 204?–249, Roman emperor (244–49). He served under Gordian III against the Persians, instigated the assassination of the emperor, and concluded a peace with Persia.
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 (Philip the Arabian), concluded a peace with him guaranteeing Shapur's power in Armenia and Mesopotamia. In 260 he achieved his greatest triumph by defeating the Roman emperor ValerianValerian
(Publius Licinius Valerianus) , d. after 260, Roman emperor (253–60). He held important posts, both civil and military, under the emperors Decius and Gallus. After the short reign of the former general Aemilianus, Valerian was proclaimed emperor.
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 at Edessa—a landmark in the decline of Rome. The rise of OdenathusOdenathus, Septimius
, d. 267, king of Palmyra. His family (the Septimii) had dominated Palmyra for many years, and Odenathus by his policy of cooperation with Rome raised his state to its zenith.
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 of Palmyra cut into Shapur's territories and even threatened Ctesiphon. Yet Shapur not only maintained Persian power in the west but also rebuilt Persian economy. He promoted a program of public works, and in later years he commissioned the translation of numerous Greek and Indian writings. He placed Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, under his protection.