Shatt al Arab


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Shatt al Arab

(shät äl ä`räb), tidal river, 120 mi (193 km) long, formed by the confluence of the TigrisTigris
, river of SW Asia, c.1,150 mi (1,850 km) long, rising in the Taurus Mts., E Turkey, and flowing SE through Iraq to join the Euphrates River, with which it forms the Shatt al Arab.
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 and EuphratesEuphrates
, Turkish Frat, Arabic Al Furat, river of SW Asia, c.1,700 mi (2,740 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Kara and the Murad rivers, E central Turkey, and flowing generally S through Turkey into Syria, then SE through Iraq, joining with the Tigris
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 rivers, flowing SE to the Persian Gulf, forming part of the Iraq-Iran border; the KarunKarun
, river, c.450 mi (720 km) long, rising in the Zagros Mts., W Iran, and flowing S to the Shatt al Arab on the Iraqi border. The Karun is navigable to Ahvaz for shallow draft vessels; rapids prevent further upstream passage except during high water in April and May.
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 is its chief tributary. The Shatt al Arab flowed through a broad, swampy delta, but the marshlands in Iraq were drained in the early 1990s in order to increase government control over the Arab Shiites (Marsh Arabs) who lived there. Restoration of the marshlands began in 2003, following the invasion of Iraq by Anglo-American forces, but only about 75% of the area was restored, and some marshland has since been lost. The river supplies fresh water to S Iraq and Kuwait but the construction of dams and the demand for water upstream has led to a greatly increased salt content. The Shatt al Arab is navigable for oceangoing vessels as far as BasraBasra
, Arabic al Basrah, city (1987 pop. 406,296), SE Iraq, on the Shatt al Arab. Basra is Iraq's second largest city and principal port. Its commercially advantageous location, near oil fields and 75 mi (121 km) from the Persian Gulf, has made it prosperous, and oil is
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, Iraq's chief port.

Iraq and Iran have disputed navigation rights on the Shatt al Arab since 1935, when an international commission gave Iraq total control of the Shatt al Arab, leaving Iran with control only of the approaches to AbadanAbadan
, city (1991 pop. 84,774), Khuzestan prov., SW Iran, on Abadan Island, in the delta of the Shatt al Arab, at the head of the Persian Gulf. It is the terminus of major oil pipelines and is an important oil refining and shipping center.
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 and KhorramshahrKhorramshahr
, city (1991 pop. 34,750), Khuzestan prov., SW Iran, at the confluence of the Karun River and the Shatt al Arab, near the Persian Gulf. It is a busy port. Its development dates to the late 19th cent., when steam navigation on the Karun was started.
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, its chief ports, and unable to develop new port facilities in the delta. To preclude Iraqi political pressure and interference with its oil and freight shipments on the Shatt al Arab, Iran built ports on the Persian Gulf to handle foreign trade. Iran and Iraq negotiated territorial agreements over the Shatt al Arab waterway in 1975, but by the end of the decade skirmishes in the area became prevalent. Full-scale war between the two countries broke out in Sept., 1980, leading to eight years of attacks on coastal areas (see Iran-Iraq WarIran-Iraq War,
1980–88, protracted military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns
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). The Shatt al Arab remains a source of conflict, as limited water access and unresolved maritime boundaries in the region persist.

Bibliography

See R. N. Schofield, Evolution of the Shatt al Arab Boundary Dispute (1986).

References in periodicals archive ?
He added "the BIC called on the Kuwaiti group to invest tourism opportunities offered in the sports city as well as in Al Mirbad Hotel on Shatt Al Arab, investment in tourism to build a theme park with 300 acres adjacent to the sports city which includes building a big funfair, exhibitions, hotels, restaurants and other tourist facilities.
Shell asked to build its own dock on the Shatt al Arab at their own expense and Iraqi Ports has given them an initial approval.
Christophe Tourenq, science and research manager with Emirates Wildlife Society-WWF, said that while the drying of the Shatt Al Arab marshes is indeed a major ecological catastrophe, the impact of which will also be felt from a human social perspective, sandstorms are a relatively common phenomenon in the UAE and the Arabian Peninsula in general.
The border runs through the Shatt Al Arab, which is called the Arvand River by Iran.
The Ministry of Defence said they were part of a Royal Navy team which had been training the new Iraqi security forces to conduct anti-smuggling operations in the Shatt al Arab.
Their capture on the Shatt al Arab Waterway comes at a delicate time in British-Iranian relations following a critical report from the UN nuclear watchdog.
Two large patrol boats and a supply ship were also left at the bottom of the Shatt Al Arab river.
The directorate plans to contract with a specialized consultative office to carry out studies about the suggested project of digging a tunnel under Shatt al Arab s water surface, to link the center of Basra city with Shatt al Arab
Shatt al Arab is a river in southeastern Iraq, formed by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
According to state-run television in Iran, the eight were detained after their three small patrol boats entered Iranian territorial waters in the Shatt al Arab waterway which divides Iran from Iraq.
According to state-run television in Iran, the eight were detained by the Iranian authorities after their patrol boats entered Iranian territorial waters in the Shatt al Arab waterway which divides Iran from Iraq.
IN A piece of naval unorthodoxy that would have made Nelson proud, Royal Marines moved patrol boats across the muddy flats of the Al-Faw peninsula in southern Iraq and launched them in the Shatt Al Arab waterway yesterday.