in Russia from 1716 to 1766, a type of dishonor applied to noblemen who were sentenced to death or permanent exile. Shel’movanie was introduced by the Army Regulations (Voinskii Ustav) of Peter I in 1716; it later came into use in civil courts. Shel’movanie consisted in breaking a sword over the offender’s head or nailing a board with his name on it to the gallows. The person who was humiliated in this way was deprived of legal protection and all civil rights. Shel’movanie was later replaced by deprivation of all rights of status.