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Sher Shah:see Sher KhanSher Khan
or Sher Shah
, 1486–1545, Afghan ruler in N India. He enlisted in the service of the Mughal leader Babur when the latter invaded India and became governor of Bihar.
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Born 1472; died 1545. Ruler of Hindustan (North India) from December 1539 to 1545.
Sher Shah was a member of the Afghan feudal clan Sur in Bihar. Originally named Farid, he became the ruler of Bihar in 1533 under the title “Sher Khan.” As a result of victories over Humayun at Chausa in 1539 and at Kanauj in 1540, he seized the possessions of the Great Moguls and subjugated Malwa and a number of the Rajput princely states, thus uniting under his rule most of North India. In December 1539 he assumed the title “Sher Shah.”
Sher Shah implemented a series of important reforms that were continued and completed by Akbar. During his reign the jagir system of landownership was organized, in which the holder of a benefice was obligated to maintain a hired cavalry detachment. Sher Shah also initiated land measurement and reorganized the collection of taxes.