Sheriff

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sheriff

1. (in the US) the chief law-enforcement officer in a county: popularly elected, except in Rhode Island
2. (in England and Wales) the chief executive officer of the Crown in a county, having chiefly ceremonial duties
3. (in Scotland) a judge in any of the sheriff courts
4. (in Australia) an administrative officer of the Supreme Court, who enforces judgments and the execution of writs, empanels juries, etc.
5. (in New Zealand) an officer of the High Court

Sheriff

 

(Russian, sudebnyi ispolnitel’), the official responsible for the compulsory execution of court decisions, rulings, and decrees in civil cases and also for the execution of court settlements, sentences, rulings, and decrees in criminal cases to the extent that they involve property exactions.

In the USSR, sheriffs also execute the decisions of arbiters, comrades’ courts, commissions on labor disputes, and other such bodies. They are appointed by the ministers of justice of autonomous republics and the heads of judicial departments of executive committees of krai, oblast, and city soviets of people’s deputies. The requirements imposed by sheriffs for the execution of court decisions are binding on all state institutions, enterprises, kolkhozes, other cooperative and public organizations, officials, and citizens throughout the USSR.


Sheriff

 

an executive officer in a county (or sometimes another administrative-territorial unit) in Great Britain, Ireland, and the USA.

The legal status of sheriffs in Great Britain is defined by the norms of common law, by parliamentary statutes (since the 14th century), and, in particular, by the Sheriffs Act of 1877. A sheriff is appointed by a special commission that acts under royal authority and is headed by the lord lieutenant of the county. Sheriffs are chosen from among the landowners of the counties. Poor people, lords, priests, officers in active service, and practicing barristers and solicitors are among those who are not eligible for the office. Sheriffs are invested with administrative and judicial powers, such as the execution of sentences, the holding of elections, the selection of juries, and the supervision of jails.

In the USA, in all states except Rhode Island, a sheriff is elected by the residents of the county. His jurisdiction extends only to rural areas, and he fulfills mainly administrative and police functions. He maintains law and order, supervises jails, makes arrests, and checks the observance of state laws regulating such activities as traffic and the sale of alcohol.

References in classic literature ?
I am called Rob the Stroller, my Lord Sheriff," said the archer.
Well, Rob the Stroller, with a little attention to your skin and clothes you would not be so bad a man," said the Sheriff.
The Sheriff glowered furiously upon this ragged archer who had refused his service, taken his prize without a word of thanks, and snubbed his daughter.
And I and my brothers have told him that the band would choose that one who should bring the Sheriff to shame this day and capture his golden arrow.
In truth I brought the Sheriff to shame for mine own pleasure, and won his golden arrow to boot.
You shamed the Sheriff e'en as I had hoped to do; and we can forego the golden arrow since it is in such fair hands.
Floyd Hayhurst, vice president of the Association of Los Angeles Deputy Sheriffs, said the supervisors should focus on public safety first.
He shows photographs of white sheriffs to Meredith, who remarks, what ever happened to them?
The district court held that the county could not be held liable for any alleged lack of training or supervision of the sheriff, or sheriffs employees.
The legal source said the sacked sheriff would be hugely embarrassed by appearing in court just months after posing for pictures outside the same court with Lord Mackay when they were appointed honorary sheriffs.