Lev Shestov

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Shestov, Lev

 

(real name Lev Isaakovich Schwarzmann). Born Jan. 31 (Feb. 12), 1866, in Kiev; died Nov. 20, 1938, in Paris. Russian existential philosopher and literary figure.

Shestov graduated from the law school of the University of Kiev in 1889. Between 1895 and 1914 he lived primarily in Switzerland. He moved to Moscow in 1914, to Kiev in 1918, and to Paris in 1920.

Combining Nietzschean and Dostoevskian themes, to which he gave his own distinctive imprint, Shestov anticipated the fundamental ideas of later existentialism. At the turn of the century, as though sensing already the world catastrophes to come, Shestov spoke of the tragic absurdity of human existence and brought forth the image of the doomed “hero” who nevertheless lays claim to his sovereign rights and challenges the entire universe. Shestov undertook a revision of traditional philosophy, demanding that the point of view be shifted from the universe to the subject. He proclaimed the “philosophy of tragedy,” which he presented in polemical juxtaposition to the academic style of thinking—the “philosophy of the commonplace” (Dostoevsky and Nietzsche: The Philosophy of Tragedy, 1903).

Shestov rebelled against the rule of reason over life experience and against the suppression of the personal and unique by the impersonal and general. But his assertion of the individual’s independence from any form of determination, including generally recognized truths and generally mandatory moral norms, led Shestov to epistemological relativism and immoralism. Although his nonreligious “apotheosis of groundlessness” (1905) was replaced in the early 1910’s by an enthusiastic belief in the spirit of Luther’s “faith alone” (sola fide), Shestov’s world view lost neither its absurd element nor its arbitrary character.

Shestov’s faith is lacking in meaningful definitions; god, who is unconnected to the concept of the logos, appears as the ideal of omnipotent willfulness “beyond good and evil.” On the other hand, hopelessness is now replaced by faith in the divine source of life’s foundations in accordance with the spirit of the Old Testament; revelation is proposed by Shestov in contrast to philosophical speculation (Athens and Jerusalem, 1951; Speculation and Revelation, 1964). In his opposition to reason, Shestov turns to hyperbole when he identifies the cognitive drive with the fall of man—mankind having fallen under the power of “soulless and necessary truths.”

As an author, Shestov revealed a temperament that was bound to attract attention to his ideas; a master of philosophical paradox and aphorism, he gained renown in the West with his biting criticism of academic thinking. References to Shestov are found in works by G. Marcel, A. Camus, and D. H. Lawrence.

WORKS

Sobr. soch., 2nd ed., vols. 1–6. St. Petersburg, 1911.
Sola fide. Paris, 1957. (Bibliography.)

REFERENCES

Asmus, V. F. “Lev Shestov i K’erkegor.” Filosofskie nauki, 1972, no. 4.
Erofeev, V. “Ostaetsia odno: proizvol.” Voprosy literatury, 1975, no. 10.
Camus, A. Le Mythe de Sisyphe. Paris, 1970. Pages 41–42, 51–56.
Wernham, J. C. S. Two Russian Thinkers. Toronto, 1968. (Bibliography.)

R. A. GAL’TSEVA

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Conversations with Lev Shestov, by Benjamin Fondane
Emigrating to France in 1923 and gallicizing his pseudonym to Fondane, he became one of Andre Breton's most ferocious critics and a disciple of the anti-rationalist philosopher Lev Shestov.
Pero no solo contra ellos sino pensando, supongo, en aquellos espiritus religiosos que se opusieron al bolchevismo mas por ser ateo que por su naturaleza universalmente tiranica: los Berdiayev, los Shestov o los Solzhenitsyn, valerosos como lo fueron en su devenir antisovietico, parecian ya, ante nuestros ojos, parte del problema y no de la solucion.
Varios han sido los autores (Lev Shestov, Leo Strauss, George Steiner, Octavi Fullat, etc.
The author makes his Christian perspective explicit, but his task is comparative, not apologetic: the first priority is to account for the depth and breadth of Heschel's interpretation of classical Judaic sources and second, to explore Heschel's categories in relation to other thinkers, the most prominent being Kant, Husserl, Heidegger, Dilthey, Scheler, Schleiermacher, Shestov, and Levinas.
31) John Middleton Murry, 'Introduction' to Leon Shestov, Tchekhov and Other Essays (Dublin: Maunsel and Sons, 1916), p.
Bulgakov was exonerated by a diocesan assembly in Paris in 1937, but the journal's theological center began to give way as the anthropocentric (Berdyaev), sophiocentric (Bulgakov), and theocentric (Lev Shestov, himself a Jew drawn to Kierkegaard) positions of key authors hardened, and the prevailing spirit was "the desire to crush an intellectual opponent" (465).
Shestov, Kierkegaard and the Existential Philosophy, translated by E.
Frank and others, or not: for instance the fascinating existentialist Lev Shestov, who, unfortunately, has been largely forgotten).
Tras despedirse de Lenin (a quien le dice adios con un extravagante elogio de El Estado y la Revolucion que juzga anarquizante) y de Trotski (muerto en contricion, nos dice, por haber destruido a los partidos revolucionarios no bolcheviques), Paz examina, en El ogro filantropico (1979), la tradicion cristiana eslava, antigua pero no primitiva como Rusia misma, de Lev Shestov y Vladimir Soloviev a Czeslaw Milosz y Joseph Brodsky, comparando la excentridad acritica de los mundos ruso e hispanoamericano, hermanos en la ausencia de la Ilustracion.
Bernard Martin, who has translated much of Shestov's work, writes that for Shestov "the gods of Nineteenth and Twentieth Century man--science, technology, the idea of inevitable historical progress, autonomous ethics, and most of all, rationalist systems of philosophy --were .
The Russian Jewish thinker Lev Shestov (1937), in his celebrated work Athens and Jerusalem, lamented over the Western tendency to privilege Greco-Roman thought, writing that: