Loss of vegetation due to deforestation, cutting beyond permissible limits, unsustainable fuelwood and fodder extraction, shifting cultivation
, encroachment into forest lands, forest fires, overgrazing, inadequate soil conservation measures, improper crop rotation, indiscriminate use of agro- chemicals, improper management of irrigation systems and excessive extraction of ground water.
The author addresses the vegetation, soils, and agriculture of the tropics, the basic features and types of shifting cultivation
, soil dynamics during fallow periods, theory and models of soil fertility restoration under bush fallow, and ecological succession theory and models.
In practicing shifting cultivation
, the tribals are compelled to set fire to the forest areas and clean the high land to carry out cultivation.
The reason for this increase was the rise in rapid and unsystematic settlement, together with the spread of shifting cultivation
in order to obtain higher income from areas previously occupied by forests.
Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation
Members of the tribe, spread over a thousand isolated hamlets, were largely dependant on hunting and shifting cultivation
Deforestation refers to the permanent conversion of natural forest area to other uses, including shifting cultivation
, permanent agriculture, ranching, settlements, and infrastructure development on an average annual basis between 1990 and 2005.
You combine these problems, and that's why they practiced shifting cultivation
Urban and periurban agricultural production patterns in Terekeka have the following features: seasonal shifting cultivation
, use of hand tools and availability of local market.
They hunted with bows and arrows and preserved their lands with ancient methods of shifting cultivation
Presently, over 300,000 families of peasant producers live in Maranhao, primarily engaging in production for household consumption and practicing small-scale shifting cultivation
in association with the extraction of babassu products.
The main feature of the economy in Ancient China was the so-called "fire field" agriculture, now more generally known as slash-and-burn or shifting cultivation
(Kolb, 1977: 30).