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one of the three early states—Silla, Koguryo, and Paekche—that arose as the primitive communal order on the Korean Peninsula disintegrated; Silla was located in the southeastern part of the peninsula.

Although chronicles traditionally date the rise of Silla to 57 B.C., the tribes in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula, led by the Saro (or Silla) tribe, were brought together only in the course of the first few centuries of the common era. A state was not really formed until the sixth century, when, over a considerable area, the geographical division of the population was consolidated, organs of state administration were created, and Buddhism became the state religion. Thenceforth, the three states fought an increasingly bitter struggle for domination of the peninsula, while the Chinese dynasties actively intervened in the struggle. Silla, in alliance with the Chinese T’ang dynasty, defeated Paekche in 660 and Koguryo in 668; however, the T’ang dynasty’s subsequent attempts to entrench itself in the Korean Peninsula provoked a national liberation struggle, during which Silla united all Korea south of the Taedong-gang (river).

The rise of a united state of Silla in the late seventh century was an important stage in the formation of the Korean nationality and in the development of feudal relations. Irrigated crop cultivation and crafts made significant strides in Silla. In the ninth century, as large-scale landowning grew and separatism among feudal lords increased, the state of Silla broke up into numerous appanages.


References in periodicals archive ?
Tenders are invited for Providing Asphalting from Shiragi hall to Pumphouse in W.
Another work, similarly titled Shiragi hoshi ho, or in Korean Silla popsa pang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], is also quoted in two separate volumes of Ishinpo; in the first, an incantation for patients to recite when taking medicine is given, and this is the only quotation from a Korean context to survive in an abridged version of Ishinpo which seems to have been compiled in 1184; the second citation merely gives a short recipe for a herbal medicine.
Sangoku shiki keisai no Shiragi no chimei jinmei nado yori mita Kodai Shiragigo no kosatsu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] x [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Bungei Gengo Kenkyii Gengo hen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] x [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 5: 47-70.
Shiragi Sairo monogatari, a translation of Ch'oe Koun chon, is reprinted in Izuharacho Shiryokan shozo kotenseki mokuroku (Izuhara: Izuhara-cho kyoiku iinkai, 1994), 113-31.