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(shō`gŭn'), title of the feudal military administrator who from the 12th cent. to the 19th cent. was, as the emperor's military deputy, the actual ruler of Japan. The title itself, Sei-i-tai Shogun [barbarian-subduing generalissimo], dates back to 794 and originally meant commander of the imperial armies who led the campaigns against the AinuAinu
, aborigines of Japan who may be descended from a Caucasoid people who once lived in N Asia. More powerful invaders from the Asian mainland gradually forced the Ainu to retreat to the northern islands of Japan and Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in what is now the Russian
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 in N Japan. The shogunate as a military administrative system was established by YoritomoYoritomo
(Yoritomo Minamoto) , 1148–99, Japanese warrior and dictator, founder of the Kamakura shogunate. After a prolonged struggle he led his clan, the Minamoto, to victory over the Taira in 1185.
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 after 1185 and was known as the Bakufu [literally, army headquarters]. The imperial court at Kyoto continued to exist, but effective power and actual administration were in the hands of the hereditary shoguns. The shogunate was held in turn by the Minamoto family and their successors, with their capital at Kamakura (1192–1333); the Ashikaga, with their capital at Kyoto (1338–1597); and the TokugawaTokugawa
, family that held the shogunate (see shogun) and controlled Japan from 1603 to 1867. Founded by Ieyasu, the Tokugawa regime was a centralized feudalism. The Tokugawa themselves held approximately one fourth of the country in strategically located parcels, which they
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, with their capital at Yedo (Tokyo) after 1603. The overthrow of the shogun in 1867 brought the Meiji restorationMeiji restoration,
The term refers to both the events of 1868 that led to the "restoration" of power to the emperor and the entire period of revolutionary changes that coincided with the Meiji emperor's reign (1868–1912).
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 and the beginning of modern Japan. See daimyodaimyo
[Jap.,=great name], the great feudal landholders of Japan, the territorial barons as distinguished from the kuge, or court nobles. Great tax-free estates were built up from the 8th cent.
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See J. P. Mass and W. B. Hauer, The Bakufu in Japanese History (1985).



originally, a military rank bestowed on troop commanders sent from the ancient Japanese capital of Kyoto (He-ian) between 794 and 811 to subdue the Ebisu (Emishi) people in the northeastern section of the island of Honshu. When de facto power passed from the emperor to the feudal house of Mi-namoto in 1192, the rank of shogun was bestowed on the head of the house, Minamoto Yoritomo. Thereafter, the title came to be applied to military-feudal rulers of Japan, who ruled in the name of the emperor, from the feudal dynasties of Minamoto (1192–1333), Ashikaga (1335[1338]–l573), and Tokugawa (1603–1867). The last shogun was Tokugawa Yoshinobu (Keiki), who was overthrown as a result of the incomplete bourgeois revolution of 1867–68.

References in periodicals archive ?
What the Shogun does offer is a very usable compromise between on-road refinement and off-road ability that will be more than adequate for most.
You don't need to pump iron to access them either - a light touch does the trick and the seats pop up, with integrated headrests, turning the Shogun into a seven-seater.
You don't need to pump iron to access them, either - a light touch does the trick and the seats pop up, with integrated headrests, which turns the Shogun into a seven-seater.
The first generation Shogun graced our shores in 1982 and thirty years on this award-winning iconic off-roader still tops the sales charts.
With its more rounded looks, I always thought the third generation Shogun looked too "soft" to be a serious off-roader.
The new Shogun is more of the same, but better than before.
Their mission is to be as car-like as possible, whilst the Shogun stays true to its roots, along with Land Rovers, Isuzus and the impressive Toyota Land Cruiser.
Shoguns come with a thinking automatic transmission which can be used as if it's a manual box with range and drive change,easy steering and powerful brakes.
But Mitsubishi really pulled out all the stops when it came to launching their revamped Shogun.
As of January 1, when the revamped Shogun goes on sale, the car comes with a new front bumper, grille, headlamps, side panels and tailgate - not to mention pounds 2,500 being slashed off the top range model and prices for the rest of the range pegged.
Although most of them will never go more off-road than mounting a kerb near a school, the Shogun is a willing workhorse for those who need a go-anywhere vehicle.
The Shoguns dominated the opening half hour with the Steelmen rarely able to venture into the opposition's half.