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a group of closely related languages, the most important of which are Karanga and Zezuru, of the south-central Bantu languages. According to a 1970 estimate, the Shona languages are spoken in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and Mozambique by 1.5 million people.

The Shona languages have five vowels. Consonants include a voiced bilabial implosive and a voiced dental implosive; nasalization, aspiration, and voicing of consonants occur at morpheme boundaries. Nouns are divided into 21 classes that form a system of concordances; in addition to augmentative, diminutive, and locative classes, the Shona languages have two special classes comprising proper names, kinship terms, and the names of totemic animals. The classes are marked by prepositive monosyllables. Verbs are conjugated by means of affixes. There are many ideo-phones. In the Shona languages, word order is fixed in the pattern subject-predicate-object. Attributes are postpositional; that is, they follow the modified word.


Marconnès, F. A Grammar of Central Koranga. [Johannesburg, 1931.]
O’Neil, J. A. A Shona Grammar: Zezuru Dialect. London, 1935.
Shona: Basic Course. Washington, D.C., 1965.
Barnes, B. H. A Vocabulary of the Dialects of Mashonaland. London, 1932.


References in periodicals archive ?
While Makata's Gona ReChimurenga (1982) is probably the first Shona novel about the liberation war to be published, and therefore captured the mood of celebration at its earliest and at its wildest, Raymond Choto's Vavariro (1990) comes at the end of the first decade of independence and demonstrates that the euphoria and mood of celebration still prevailed.
Perhaps the reason why these authors of Shona liberation war fiction tended "to romanticize and deodorise the liberation struggle" (Chiweshe, 2004:E2) is that they did not physically take part in the actual fighting itself.
Shona war fiction in content and form seems to be an expression of the thinking of the original ZANU (PF).
The Shona war novel also seems to endorse the philosophy of socialism that the new black government expounded.
It has been argued and demonstrated that post-war euphoria, mood of independence as well as the dominant ideology of the epoch immensely influenced Shona writers' perspectives on the armed struggle in Zimbabwe.
Shona war fiction belongs to the postindependence era in Zimbabwe and it cannot be dissociated from the celebration, the euphoria and the dominant thinking of that time.
In the case of the Shona war stories the competitions were launched in a moment of euphoria and celebration.
They aim at mindless entertainment, which is what most of the Shona war novels and short stories turned out to be.