sialic acid

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sialic acid:

see glycoproteinglycoprotein
, organic compound composed of both a protein and a carbohydrate joined together in covalent chemical linkage. These structures occur in many life forms; they are prevalent and important in mammalian tissues.
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Sialic Acid

 

any of the monobasic polyhydroxy amino acids that are derivatives of neuraminic acid. Sialic acids are colorless crystalline solids that dissolve readily in water but are insoluble in nonpolar solvents. They decompose without melting in the temperature range 130°-200°C and are easily decomposed by the action of acids and bases. In nature, as components of glycoproteins and glycolipids, sialic acids are found in, among other places, the cell walls of animals, nerve tissue, and mucous secretions. The biosynthesis of biopolymers containing sialic acids is carried out using the activated form of sialic acids, namely, cytidine monophosphate-sialic acids, which are special sialyltransferase enzymes. Sialic acids determine the antigen and receptor properties of cell surfaces, participating in the interaction of the surfaces with, for example, viruses, toxins, and hormones.

sialic acid

[sī′al·ik ′as·əd]
(biochemistry)
Any of a family of amino sugars, containing nine or more carbon atoms, that are nitrogen- and oxygen-substituted acyl derivatives of neuraminic acid; as components of lipids, polysaccharides, and mucoproteins, they are widely distributed in bacteria and in animal tissues.
References in periodicals archive ?
H7N9 influenza viruses interact preferentially with alpha2,3-linked sialic acids and bind weakly to alpha2,6-linked sialic acids.
The ubiquitous H1N1 and H3N2 flu strains, for example, use the protein hemagglutinin (H) to bind to matching sialic acid receptors on the surface of a cell before penetrating it, and then use the enzyme neuraminidase (N) to cleave or split these sialic acids when viral particles are ready to exit and spread the infection.
Sialix, Inc is developing products for the treatment and prevention of cancer and chronic inflammatory conditions associated with ingestion of non-human sialic acids which are found in red meat and other dietary sources.
Total sialic acid level in urine was found to be increased (normal value: 17-243 [micro]mol/nmol; the result: 6504 [micro]mol/nmol Cr).
This assay measures the sum of the Tf variants containing 0-2 sialic acid residues relative to the amount of total Tf.
Dotting the surfaces of most cells in all animals, sialic acids influence cell-cell interactions but can also serve as docking stations for microorganisms that infect cells.
This difference in encapsulation was further confirmed by direct quantification of sialic acid levels (Figure 2, panel B) and by imaging with transmission electron microscopy (Figure 2, panel C).
There are alternative transcripts for both the A[alpha] and [gamma] chains, with the A[alpha] being phosphorylated nonstoichiometrically (1) and both the B[beta] and [gamma] chains containing biantennary oligosaccharide side chains that terminate either with 2 sialic acids or with 1 sialic acid and 1 galactose residue (5).
Evolutionary Considerations in Studying the Sialome: Sialic Acids and the HostPathogen Interface Amanda L.
Sialic acids are derived from neuraminic acid whose main derivative is N-acetylneuraminic acid, which is generally used as a synonym for sialic acid (Ledeen and Yu 1976).
Rotaviruses are thought to infect the bodies by sticking to certain types of sugars called sialic acids on the surface of our stomach cells.