Simón Bolívar

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Bolívar, Simón

 

Born July 24, 1783, in Caracas, Venezuela; died Dec. 17, 1830, near Santa Marta, Colombia. One of the leaders of the independence struggle of the Spanish colonies in America. Born into a noble Creole family.

Bolívar spent his youth in Europe, in Spain, France, and Italy. Returning to his homeland, he took an active part in the overthrow of Spanish rule in Venezuela (1810) and in its proclamation as a republic (1811). After the latter was smashed by the Spanish, Bolívar settled down in New Granada (now Colombia). In 1813 his troops occupied Caracas; the second Venezuelan republic, headed by Bolívar, was established. However, he was defeated in 1814 and was forced to leave his homeland. A band led by Bolívar once again settled on the shores of Venezuela in 1816. The abolition of slavery (1816) and the decree allocating land to soldiers of the liberation army (1817) helped him obtain the support of the broad masses. In 1819 his troops liberated New Granada, and he was chosen president of the republic of Gran Colombia, which included Venezuela and New Granada. Concluding the rout of the major Spanish forces in Venezuela (1821), Bolivar’s army liberated the province of Quito (present-day Ecuador) in 1822, which was subsequently joined to Gran Colombia. In 1824 he smashed the Spanish forces on the territory of Peru, and in 1825 he became head of the republic of Bolivia—so-named in his honor—which was forming in upper Peru. In the effort to rally and unite the new states of Latin America, Bolívar called a continental congress in Panama (1826). However, he did not succeed in realizing his plans. The separatist actions that began led to the overthrow of Bolivar’s regime in Peru and Bolivia, and they threatened to separate Venezuela and Quito from Colombia. Bolívar retired at the beginning of 1830.

Bolivar’s activity, which aimed at the liquidation of the colonial regime with its characteristic feudal features, objectively furthered the bourgeois development of the countries of South America.

WORKS

Obras completas, vols. 1–2. Havana, 1947.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. “Bolivar-i-Ponte.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 14.
Lavretskii, I. R. Bolivar, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966. (Bibliography.)

M. S. AL’PEROVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
Simon Bolivar was given the title El Libertador by the people of Caracas, Venezuela.
The Venezuelan historian Roldan Esteva-Grillet recalls in this article that in 1939 the Mexican philosopher Jose Vasconcelos published a book about Simon Bolivar that is rarely quoted by many scholars.
Junto a este articulo esta "Capital psicologico como predictor del comportamiento organizacional ciudadano en el ambiente universitario", por parte de Julio Cesar Ponce Gutierrez y Guillermo Yaber Oltra, profesores titulares de la Universidad Simon Bolivar.
Durante El Quinquenio--segundo periodo guzmancista--, el presidente de la Republica, el Ilustre Americano--como fue conocido Antonio Guzman Blanco--, decidio honrar la memoria de Simon Bolivar en el Centenario de su Natalicio (1783-1883), llevando a cabo una fastuosa exposicion nacional que pasaria a constituir un acontecimiento sin precedentes en el pais suramericano.
Music has the power to change lives," Gustavo Dundamel, the renowned conductor of the Simon Bolivar Orchestra, said yesterday as he arrived in Scotland.
Omar Porras, director colombiano radicado en Suiza, parte del texto del poeta William Ospina para construir la obra; incluye diversos discursos de Simon Bolivar y declaraciones de sus allegados; nos alegra con canciones y bailes --voces, arpas, percusiones y guitarras--, con las que nos sigue contando historias o de alguno que otro vicio del libertador.
Cuentan que tenia unos expresivos ojos azules, una impactante anatomia, mucho ingenio y lengua aguda: <<Su cabeza llegaba al corazon de cualquier hombre>>, contaba Artemio de Valle-Arizpe; fue amante de Simon Bolivar, Alexander von Humboldt, Agustin de Iturbide, tres curas y muchos otros hombres.
Incluso me presento a su hija y me mostro la habitacion usada por Simon Bolivar, asi que fue muy encantador".
In recent months, Dudamel and the music organization he leads, the Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra of Venezuela, have been treated to two profiles on CBS News' popular 60 Minutes newsmagazine program.
The plane, owned by Venezuelan airline Santa Barbara, failed to contact control towers in two cities as expected after it took off from Merida on the way to Simon Bolivar International Airport near Caracas, said General Antonio Rivero, Venezuela's emergency management director.
En aquel ensayo, publicado hace ya mas de tres lustros, Castro Leiva explica como la biografia ejemplar de Simon Bolivar ha sido la unica filosofia politica que los venezolanos hemos sido capaces de discurrir en casi dos siglos de vida independiente.
While he was in exile in Jamaica, Simon Bolivar received a letter from a Jamaican who sympathized with hi dreams for South American independence.