Simón Bolívar

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Bolívar, Simón

 

Born July 24, 1783, in Caracas, Venezuela; died Dec. 17, 1830, near Santa Marta, Colombia. One of the leaders of the independence struggle of the Spanish colonies in America. Born into a noble Creole family.

Bolívar spent his youth in Europe, in Spain, France, and Italy. Returning to his homeland, he took an active part in the overthrow of Spanish rule in Venezuela (1810) and in its proclamation as a republic (1811). After the latter was smashed by the Spanish, Bolívar settled down in New Granada (now Colombia). In 1813 his troops occupied Caracas; the second Venezuelan republic, headed by Bolívar, was established. However, he was defeated in 1814 and was forced to leave his homeland. A band led by Bolívar once again settled on the shores of Venezuela in 1816. The abolition of slavery (1816) and the decree allocating land to soldiers of the liberation army (1817) helped him obtain the support of the broad masses. In 1819 his troops liberated New Granada, and he was chosen president of the republic of Gran Colombia, which included Venezuela and New Granada. Concluding the rout of the major Spanish forces in Venezuela (1821), Bolivar’s army liberated the province of Quito (present-day Ecuador) in 1822, which was subsequently joined to Gran Colombia. In 1824 he smashed the Spanish forces on the territory of Peru, and in 1825 he became head of the republic of Bolivia—so-named in his honor—which was forming in upper Peru. In the effort to rally and unite the new states of Latin America, Bolívar called a continental congress in Panama (1826). However, he did not succeed in realizing his plans. The separatist actions that began led to the overthrow of Bolivar’s regime in Peru and Bolivia, and they threatened to separate Venezuela and Quito from Colombia. Bolívar retired at the beginning of 1830.

Bolivar’s activity, which aimed at the liquidation of the colonial regime with its characteristic feudal features, objectively furthered the bourgeois development of the countries of South America.

WORKS

Obras completas, vols. 1–2. Havana, 1947.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. “Bolivar-i-Ponte.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 14.
Lavretskii, I. R. Bolivar, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966. (Bibliography.)

M. S. AL’PEROVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
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The coffin, draped in the Venezuelan flag, was placed in the Hall of Honor at the Military Academy, where Maduro placed a golden model of the sword of Simon Bolivar on it.
The 11 defendants, seven of which were charged in absentia, were arrested in Simon Bolivar Square, where clashes with police erupted.
As the Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra of Venezuela has shown, far more is possible than we could ever imagine, if we can only trust enough to come together with a common vision.
As they bid each other farewell early one morning in Quito, Manuela Saenz knew that, spiritually, she would never again be separated from Simon Bolivar.
Yildiz told reporters at the Simon Bolivar Airport upon his arrival that the progress of the Energy Working Group of the two countries established two months ago would be assessed during the visit.
Chavez also announced that his government would build apartments near Simon Bolivar International Airport, the country's largest and busiest airport, and other residential complexes inside El Avila National Park, a mountainous swath of land separating Caracas from the coast;
Simon Bolivar, South America's revered liberator, died in 1830--probably of tuberculosis.
that the Simon Bolivar medal was awarded to the Kuwaiti diplomat to commend
A monument of Latin American Liberator, Simon Bolivar, has been inaugurated in the Bulgarian capital Sofia on the occasion of 200 years of Venezuela's independence from Spain.