Langham, Simon (lăng`əm), d. 1376, English prelate and statesman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He ruled the abbey of Westminster with such skill that Edward III appointed (1360) him treasurer and chancellor (1363). Created bishop of Ely in 1362, Langham rose to be archbishop of Canterbury (1366). His acceptance of the red hat without royal permission led to a breach with Edward, and Langham resigned (1368). He went to Avignon, where he held office at the court of Pope Gregory XI.