Simon de Montfort


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Montfort, Simon de

(mŏnt`fərt, Fr. môNfôr`), c.1160–1218, count of Montfort and earl of Leicester. A participant in the Fourth Crusade (1202–4), he did not join in the sack of Constantinople, but instead proceeded to Syria. He later led the crusade against the AlbigensesAlbigenses
[Lat.,=people of Albi, one of their centers], religious sect of S France in the Middle Ages. Beliefs and Practices

Officially known as heretics, they were actually Cathari, Provençal adherents of a doctrine similar to the Manichaean dualistic
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. Capable, ambitious, and fanatically religious, he commanded the Crusaders who remained in S France after the taking (1209) of Carcassone and, with papal approval, was elected viscount of Béziers and of Carcassone by the armies. In 1211 he attacked the remaining territories of Raymond VIRaymond VI,
1156–1222, count of Toulouse (c.1194–1222). His tolerant attitude toward the Albigenses resulted in his repeated excommunication, although he temporarily made peace with the church in 1209.
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 of Toulouse and overran all but Toulouse and Montauban. Pope Innocent III attempted to make him recognize Peter IIPeter II,
1174–1213, king of Aragón (1196–1213) and count of Barcelona, son and successor of Alfonso II. He had himself crowned (1204) at Rome by Pope Innocent III, whom he accepted as overlord of Aragón and Catalonia.
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 of Aragón as overlord, but in 1213 Simon defeated Peter and Raymond at Muret. He was proclaimed lord of Toulouse and Montauban by the Crusaders (1215), and his title was confirmed by the pope at the Lateran Council. Raymond recaptured (1217) some of his territories, and Simon renewed the warfare; he was killed while besieging Toulouse. Through his mother he claimed the English earldom of Leicester, to which his right was intermittently recognized by King John. His son was Simon de Montfort, the leader of the English barons.

Montfort, Simon de

 

Earl of Leicester. Born circa 1208 in Montfort, He de France; died Aug. 4, 1265, in Evesham. English political figure, one of the leaders of the baronial opposition to King Henry III.

De Montfort was among the authors of the Provisions of Oxford (1258), which sharply curtailed royal authority in favor of the barons. He contributed to the issuance of the Provisions of Westminster in 1259 and to the introduction of other measures that took into account the interests of the lesser knights and urban dwellers.

After civil war broke out in 1263, De Montfort and his supporters gained a victory over royal forces at Lewes on May 14, 1264. Becoming de facto dictator, or lord protector, of England, he summoned the first parliament in January 1265, thus laying the foundation for representation according to social estate in England. De Montfort’s forces were defeated by royal troops at Evesham, where he was killed in battle.

REFERENCE

Gutnova, E. V. Vozniknovenie angliiskogo par/amenta. Moscow, 1960.
References in periodicals archive ?
The bay window of the adjacent extensively atted and equipped breakfast kitchen has delightful parkland views towards the listed Leicester Tower, built by the Rudge family, in 1842, to commemorate Simon de Montfort.
The king had already given up some of his power to the barons when, in 1264, Simon de Montfort led a revolt against Henry.
The continued growth of the Blue Cod CEA client group is a testament to our expertise within this specialized market," said Simon de Montfort Walker, executive vice president, operations, Blue Cod Technologies, Inc.
e momentous events of 1215 and 1216 were followed by a series of dramatic actions as the barons again revolted in 1263 against King Henry III, led by Simon de Montfort.
As well as being the only daughter of Llywelyn she was the granddaughter of Simon de Montfort and great-granddaughter of King John.
ANSWERS: 1 A fish; 2 The Yardbirds; 3 A jewelled Easter egg; 4 Bill Maynard; 5 Four, five and six irons; 6 Mississippi; 7 Ring of Fire; 8 Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania; 9 Arnold Dorsey; 10 Simon de Montfort.
Bin Surour leads the Carnival table with 24 winners, one clear of his Godolphin workmate Mahmoud Al Zarouni, who collected his 23rd success of the term courtesy of Simon De Montfort, an impressive winner of the $175,000 (Dh642,775) Al Dana Wealth Management race on turf.
Leading the opposition to Classic Punch is the Mahmood Al Zarooni-trained Simon De Montfort, third in the Winter Hill at Windsor last Saturday.
TODAY CONSTITUTION DAY IN COOK ISLANDS 1265: The Battle of Evesham took place, in which Simon de Montfort, leader of rebellious barons, was defeated and killed by Royalist forces led by Prince Edward, the future King Edward I.
Big-race wins 2010 Prix la Force (Group 3) Simon De Montfort.
Simon de Montfort, the Earl of Leicester, persecuted Jews, plotted in the assassination of the Bishop of Hereford and corruptly doled out vast areas of the country to his sons.
She marked her Silver Jubilee in 1977 with an address to both Houses and, in 1965, to commemorate the 700th anniversary of the Parliament of Simon de Montfort.