monosaccharide

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monosaccharide:

see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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Monosaccharide

A class of simple sugars containing a chain of 3–10 carbon atoms in the molecule, known as polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses). They are very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. The number of monosaccharides known is approximately 70, of which about 20 occur in nature. The remainder are synthetic. The existence of such a large number of compounds is due to the presence of asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecules. Aldohexoses, for example, which include the important sugar glucose, contain no less than four asymmetric atoms, each of which may be present in either d or l configuration. The number of stereoisomers rapidly increases with each additional asymmetric carbon atom.

A list of the best-known monosaccharides is given below:

Aldose monosaccharides having 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their chains have been synthesized. See Carbohydrate

monosaccharide

[¦män·ō¦sak·ə‚rīd]
(biochemistry)
A carbohydrate which cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate; a polyhedric alcohol having reducing properties associated with an actual or potential aldehyde or ketone group; classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms, as triose (3C), tetrose (4C), pentose (5C), and so on.

monosaccharide

a simple sugar, such as glucose or fructose, that does not hydrolyse to yield other sugars
References in periodicals archive ?
Dr Claire Pincock, of research group CDR, said: 'Everyone's cognitive function declines during the morning but we found that the rate of decline among kids who ate a complex carbohydraterich breakfast was only half of that seen among those who ate a simple carbohydrate breakfast.
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While simple carbohydrates contained in packaged, processed junk foods are certainly not a health food, athletic performance is highly dependant on proper timing and ingestion of carbohydrates, both simple and complex.
The study, the first of its kind to compare complex carbohydrates with simple carbohydrates, has found that 'proper' cereal breakfasts are the best for growing children.
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Remember, carbohydrates (especially simple carbohydrates like bread, pasta, soda, candy, pastries, potatoes) tend to raise your blood sugar.
They are also low in simple carbohydrates, which can lead to obesity and diabetes.
Additionally, inflammation, which increases insulin resistance, can lead to weight gain and carb cravings; the added abdominal fat and high intake of sugars and other simple carbohydrates then contributes to the inflammation, creating a "snowball effect" of worsening symptoms.

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