monosaccharide

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monosaccharide:

see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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Monosaccharide

A class of simple sugars containing a chain of 3–10 carbon atoms in the molecule, known as polyhydroxy aldehydes (aldoses) or ketones (ketoses). They are very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in ether. The number of monosaccharides known is approximately 70, of which about 20 occur in nature. The remainder are synthetic. The existence of such a large number of compounds is due to the presence of asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecules. Aldohexoses, for example, which include the important sugar glucose, contain no less than four asymmetric atoms, each of which may be present in either d or l configuration. The number of stereoisomers rapidly increases with each additional asymmetric carbon atom.

A list of the best-known monosaccharides is given below:

Aldose monosaccharides having 8, 9, and 10 carbon atoms in their chains have been synthesized. See Carbohydrate

monosaccharide

[¦män·ō¦sak·ə‚rīd]
(biochemistry)
A carbohydrate which cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler carbohydrate; a polyhedric alcohol having reducing properties associated with an actual or potential aldehyde or ketone group; classified on the basis of the number of carbon atoms, as triose (3C), tetrose (4C), pentose (5C), and so on.

monosaccharide

a simple sugar, such as glucose or fructose, that does not hydrolyse to yield other sugars
References in periodicals archive ?
Split into four groups, one set of youngsters had a simple carbohydrate meal of a glucose drink, two groups had cereal and the last had no breakfast at all.
Avoid sugar, booze, caffeine, simple carbohydrates like white bread, pasta and rice and all saturated fats.
Simple carbohydrates are sugars and other sweet-tasting substances, such as honey, cakes and biscuits.
The problem is that it's a simple carbohydrate, so sugar enters and leaves the bloodstream rapidly, causing those who eat it to, in effect, "crash.
No, there is no reason for some of the ingredients (food coloring, brominated vegetable oil), but a simple carbohydrate (sugar) and electrolyte solution benefits the athlete in several ways.
She added, 'Sugar is a simple carbohydrate and evidence from this study shows that, coupled with a large amount of caffeine, the body rapidly turns it into stored fat.
The form of biglycan that is active therapeutically contains only simple carbohydrate side chains.
Researchers studying the cognitive skills of a group of nine to 16-year-olds after they had eaten a complex carbohydrate meal, such as cereal, a simple carbohydrate breakfast, like a glucose drink, or no breakfast at all.
Simple carbohydrate in the form of sugar gives you an initial quick energy boost but, because of that very speed, also soon results in extreme tiredness that can make you fall asleep at the wheel.
For a long-term healthy diet increase your complex carbohydrate intake - vegetables, fruit, whole-grain bread, cereal and pasta, brown rice and potatoes - and decrease your simple carbohydrate intake - sugars, biscuits, cakes, fizzy drinks, white bread, white pasta and jam.

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