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(sĭnd), province (1998 pop. 29,991,161), c.50,000 sq mi (129,500 sq km), SE Pakistan, roughly coextensive with the lower Indus River valley and bounded by India on the east and south and by the Arabian Sea on the southwest. KarachiKarachi
, city (1998 pop. 9,269,265), largest city and former capital of Pakistan, SE Pakistan, on the Arabian Sea near the Indus River delta. The capital of Sind prov., it is Pakistan's chief seaport and industrial center, a transportation, commercial, and financial hub, and a
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 is the capital. The province takes its name from the river, which was known as the Sindhu. Despite some hilly and desert areas, it consists mainly of the alluvial plain and delta of the Indus River. Hot and arid, the region depends almost exclusively on irrigation for agriculture. Watered by the great SukkurSukkur
, city (1998 pop. 329,176), SE Pakistan, on the Indus River. It is an important commercial and industrial city and a center for trade with Afghanistan. Its industries produce cotton and silk textiles, cigarettes, lime, cement, and foodstuffs.
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 and Kotri barrages, it supports wheat, rice, millet, cotton, oilseed, sugarcane, fruits, and some tobacco. There are also sheep and cattle breeding and poultry farming. The great majority of the population engages in agriculture, but HyderabadHyderabad,
city (1998 pop. 1,151,274), Sind prov., S Pakistan. Pakistan's fourth largest city, it has long been noted for its embroideries, precious-metal goods, and cutlery.
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 is a leading Pakistani industrial center. The region is noted for handicrafts, especially lacquer ware, mirror embroidery, and tile work. Fishing is important in coastal areas. The chief language is Sindhi.

Sind may have been the site of the subcontinent's earliest civilization (see Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization,
ancient civilization that flourished from about 2500 B.C. to about 1500 B.C. in the valley of the Indus River and its tributaries, in the northwestern portion of the Indian subcontinent, i.e., present-day Pakistan.
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). The region was taken (5th cent. B.C.) by Darius I of Persia, invaded (325 B.C.) by Alexander the Great, annexed (c.3d cent. B.C.) by the MauryaMaurya
, ancient Indian dynasty, c.325–c.183 B.C., founded by Chandragupta (Chandragupta Maurya). He conquered the Magadha kingdom and established his capital at Pataliputra (now Patna). His son, Bindusara (d. c.
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 empire, overrun (165 B.C.) by the Huns, and ruled (1st-2d cent. A.D.) by the Kushan dynasty. The Arab invaders of Sind in 711 were the first permanent Muslim settlers on the subcontinent; Sind remained under direct or nominal Arab rule until the 11th cent., when it passed to the Muslim Turkic Ghaznavids. Arab religious, social, and cultural influences remain strong. Although briefly incorporated into the Mughal empire by Akbar (who was born in Sind), the region remained for centuries under local Muslim dynasties. Emirs of Sind, who were of Baluch descent, held power in the late 18th and early 19th cent. until Sir Charles Napier, the British general, defeated them in 1843. The British made Karachi the capital and administered Sind as part of the Bombay presidency until 1937, when it became an autonomous province. After Pakistan became independent in 1947, Karachi was made the national capital, and Sind's capital was shifted to Hyderabad. From 1955 to 1970, Sind was part of West Pakistan prov.; it became a separate province again in 1970, with Karachi the capital. Sind became the new home of hundreds of thousands of Muslims displaced by the 1947 partition.



a province in southeastern Pakistan, in the basin of the lower Indus River. Area, 140,900 sq km. Population, 14 million (1972). The capital is the city of Karachi.

Sind is comparatively well developed economically; it occupies 18.8 percent of the country’s territory and has 21.5 percent of the population. With Karachi being the country’s principal seaport and economic center, the province accounts for almost one-half of the country’s industrial output; other industrial centers of the province include Hyderabad and Sukkur. There are textile, food-processing, and chemical industries, as well as machine-building and metalworking enterprises. In the Indus Valley there is diversified, irrigated agriculture. Sind accounts for 53 percent of the country’s rice crop, 15 percent of the wheat and sugarcane, 28 percent of the cotton and oilseeds, and 36 percent of the jowar (a type of millet). The high quality characteristic of agricultural produce is due to the introduction of modern technical and economic methods of land cultivation. There is also livestock raising and fishing.

From the middle of the third to the middle of the second millennium B.C. Sind was the site of one of the principal centers of the Proto-Indic Harappa civilization (seeMOHENJO-DARO). At the end of the sixth century B.C., it was made part of the ancient Persian empire of the Achaemenids. In the years 327-325 B.C. it was conquered by Alexander the Great and then apparently became part of the Mauryan empire. In the second and first centuries B.C, it was part of the Greek kingdom in India, and in the first through third centuries A.D. it belonged to the Kushana kingdom. In the fifth and sixth centuries, it was ruled by the Ephthalites (or White Huns), and at the beginning of the eighth century it was conquered by the Arabs. The Arab conquest was accompanied by the spread of Islam. Around 750, Sind became an independent state under the local Sumra and other dynasties (during the first half of the 11th century it was a vassal dependency of the Ghaznavids). In 1591 it was conquered by Akbar, but at the beginning of the 18th century it again became independent, with local dynasties of the Kalhoras and the Talpurs. During the second half of the 18th century it was a vassal dependency of the Afghan rulers of the Durrani dynasty.

Sind was seized by British colonialists in 1843 and until 1936 was part of the Bombay Presidency within the colony of British India. From 1936 to 1947 it was a province of British India. In August 1947, Sind became part of Pakistan; from 1947 to 1955 it was a separate province, and from 1955 to 1970 it was part of the unified province of West Pakistan. Since 1970 Sind has again been a separate province.


a province of SE Pakistan, mainly in the lower Indus valley: formerly a province of British India; became a province of Pakistan in 1947; divided in 1955 between Hyderabad and Khairpur; reunited as a province in 1970. Capital: Karachi. Pop.: 34 240 000 (2003 est.). Area: 140 914 sq. km (54 407 sq. miles)
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