Sinf

Sinf

 

(plural, asnaf), an association of artisans, organized on the basis of trade or class, in the feudal states of the Muslim East. The asnaf were functionally akin to Western European guilds, but they had only limited internal autonomy in administrative and financial matters.

The first mention of the asnaf in historical sources dates from the ninth century. By the 14th century they had spread throughout the Middle East, but they were most highly developed in the Ottoman Empire. The most important figure in the sinf hierarchy was the master; below him were assistants, and below them, apprentices. With the development of commodity-money relations, the asnaf devoted less time to organizing production; the main functions of the highest-ranking members became the collection of taxes from the artisans and the maintenance of order among the members of the guild.

In the 19th century, Western European economic expansion and the development of capitalist relations in the East led to a decline of the asnaf. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the asnaf disbanded or were abolished.

References in periodicals archive ?
KARACHI -- Anjuman e Tarraqi e Urdu will hold a discussion on Sinf e Naat Adabi wa Saqafati Jaiza (Literary and Cultural Review of Naat) with known scholar and critic Dr.
Among the marks obtained for the theory courses of the program, depending on the mark for the course SINF 3313--Perinatal care (p [less than or equal to] 0.
4 more chances of succeeding at the CRNE for each one-letter increase in the final mark of the course SINF2293--Clinic in adult care I and almost twice the chances of succeeding for the same increase in the courses SINF 3583 and SINF 4682 (p [less than or equal to] 0.
Conversely, the InfC subordinated to an auditory PV prototypically has a sentential structure, the whole InfC functions as the DO of the PV, and the perceived participant functions as the Sinf within the subordinated complement.
Tom was in Ireland for a series of shows in Belfast and Dublin and chose Lillies as his partying base for aftershow fun but didn't sinf for anyone there.
CALPADS consists of many different facets, from its Statewide Student Identifier (SSID), to a variety of important records and documents like SASS and SDEM (which contain faculty data) and SENR, SINF, SDIS, SPRG, and SWAV (which contain important student information including achievement data).
During the third quarter the Sign On Form Hotel department concluded contracts with customers such as SINF (the Swedish Industrial Association), FAS (the Swedish Working Life and Social Science Research Council) and the Parish Association of the Church of Sweden.