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(shē`än`) or


(shē`än`, sē`–), city (1994 est. pop. 2,114,900), capital of Shaanxi prov., China, in the Wei River valley. Situated on the Longhai RR, China's principal east-west line, it is an important commercial, tranportation, and tourism center in a wheat- and cotton-growing area. It has metallurgical, food-processing, and aerospace industries as well as plants making motor vehicles, chemicals, cement, electrical machinery, electric-car batteries, computer electronics, pharmaceuticals, and fertilizer.

Xianyang, one of several cities that have occupied this site, was (255–206 B.C.) the capital of the Ch'in dynasty. Excavations begun in 1974 some 20 mi (32 km) northeast of Xi'an at the tomb of Shih Huang-ti (emperor, 221–c.209 B.C.) uncovered an army of 6,000 life-size figures in battle formation. The 1990s brought the discovery nearby of some 800 royal tombs from the Han era, some containing hundreds of miniature clay soldiers, and the remains of sacrificial temples. The present city, then called Chang'an, was (202 B.C.–A.D. 25) the first capital of the Han dynasty and later the western capital of the T'ang dynasty (618–907), when it was a center of Buddhist, Muslim, and Nestorian Christian missionary activity. In the "Xi'an Incident" (1936), Chiang Kai-shekChiang Kai-shek
, 1887–1975, Chinese Nationalist leader. He was also called Chiang Chung-cheng.

After completing military training with the Japanese Army, he returned to China in 1911 and took part in the revolution against the Manchus (see Ch'ing).
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 was kidnapped by Chang Hsüeh-liangChang Hsüeh-liang
or Zhang Xueliang
, 1898–2001, Chinese warlord, son of Chang Tso-lin. On the death (1928) of his father, he succeeded as military governor of Manchuria. He was then known as Chang Hsiao-liang but later changed his name.
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 and imprisoned until he agreed to form a united front against the Japanese. The site of the incident is now a lush hot-spring resort with memorial pavilions.

The city has numerous T'ang dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum, housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from the T'ang dynasty; one (781) commemorates the establishment of a Nestorian church. The city wall, dating from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), is still visible in places. In Xi'an are botanical gardens and Northwest Polytechnical Univ., Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., and many other institutions of higher learning. The city has a major airport. The name sometimes appears as Hsi-an.

References in periodicals archive ?
24 November 2010 - Fitch upheld on Wednesday the national long-term BB(ind) rating with a "stable" outlook assigned to Indian infrastructure project contractor company Singan Projects Ltd.
In the medium term, Singan will be mainly challenged to prove its ability to meet the higher working capital requirements and implement higher value-added projects and build its technical competencies, according to the analysts.
El: 934) Se maeg eal fela singan ond secgan [thorn]am bi[eth] snyttru craeft bifolen on fer[eth]e.
1) Old English strong verb classes Class 1: ridan : rad : ridon : riden 'ride' Class 2: beodan : bead : budon : boden 'command' Class 3a: singan : sang : sungon : sungen 'sing' Class 3b: helpan : healp : hulpon : holpen 'help' Class 4: teran : tcer : taeron : toren 'tear' Class 5: metan : mcet : maeton : meten 'mete' Class 6: faran : for : foron : faren 'fare' Class 7a: hatan : het : heton : haten 'command' Class 7b: beatan : beot : beoton : beaten 'beat' Class 7c: feallan : feoll: feollon : feallen 'fall' Class 7d: blandan : blend : blendon : blanden 'mix' Class 7e: laetan : let : leton : laeten 'let' Class 7f: growan : greow : greowon : growen 'grow' (Campbell 1959: 3047-320)