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prearranged armed fight with deadly weapons, usually swords or pistols, between two persons concerned with a point of honor. The duel may have originated in the wager of battle, an early mode of trial in which an accused person fought with his accuser under judicial supervision (see ordealordeal,
ancient legal custom whereby an accused person was required to perform a test, the outcome of which decided the person's guilt or innocence. By an ordeal, appeal was made to divine authority to decide the guilt or innocence of one accused of a crime or to choose between
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). In 887, Pope Stephen VI prohibited the judicial duel and all forms of ordeal. Wager of battle was abolished in France in the mid-16th cent., and the duel of honor in part took its place. This institution, which emerged in the Italian Renaissance, spread to France and then to Great Britain and other European countries. It evolved in the 16th cent. and was very closely linked with the code of chivalrychivalry
, system of ethical ideals that arose from feudalism and had its highest development in the 12th and 13th cent.

Chivalric ethics originated chiefly in France and Spain and spread rapidly to the rest of the Continent and to England.
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). Codified in various countries in the late 18th and early 19th cents., the duel of honor became a rare practice after World War I.

To initiate a duel the offended party would present a challenge to fight, which had to be accepted or the person challenged would be dishonored. Negotiations were conducted by seconds, who also observed the combat to see that all agreements of the complex ceremony were observed. The object of a duel was not necessarily to kill, and in most cases after the firing of a prescribed number of shots or drawing blood the fight would be stopped. Although dueling was opposed by the rulers and churches of various countries, it long persisted among aristocrats, army officers, and others. German students were especially noted for their duels. Duels were quite common in the United States, some fought by prominent Americans. For example, Alexander HamiltonHamilton, Alexander,
1755–1804, American statesman, b. Nevis, in the West Indies. Early Career

He was the illegitimate son of James Hamilton (of a prominent Scottish family) and Rachel Faucett Lavien (daughter of a doctor-planter on Nevis and the estranged
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 was killed in a duel with Aaron BurrBurr, Aaron,
1756–1836, American political leader, b. Newark, N.J., grad. College of New Jersey (now Princeton). Political Career

A brilliant law student, Burr interrupted his study to serve in the American Revolution and proved himself a valiant soldier in
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, and Andrew JacksonJackson, Andrew,
1767–1845, 7th President of the United States (1829–37), b. Waxhaw settlement on the border of South Carolina and North Carolina (both states claim him). Early Career

A child of the backwoods, he was left an orphan at 14.
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 took part in several duels. In the United States, dueling persisted longest in the Southern states and on the Western frontier. Dueling today has been made illegal by statute in most countries. Killing in the course of a duel is usually considered willful murder, and all persons aiding the principals are guilty with them.


See studies by J. Atkinson (1964), R. Baldrick (1965), V. G. Kiernan (1986), K. McAleer (1994), J. B. Freeman (2001), B. Holland (2003), and J. Landale (2006).


a prearranged combat with deadly weapons between two people following a formal procedure in the presence of seconds and traditionally fought until one party was wounded or killed, usually to settle a quarrel involving a point of honour


A front end to gdb by Michael Golan <mg@cs.princeton.edu>. DUEL implements a language designed for debugging C programs. It features efficient ways to select and display data items. It is normally linked into the gdb executable, but could stand alone. It interprets a subset of C in addition to its own language.

Version 1.10.

References in periodicals archive ?
Russia's United Aircraft (OAK) is to create a single combat aircraft division by merging its RSK MiG and Sukhoi units under the leadership of Sukhoi boss Mikhail Pogosyan.
Single combat and warfare in German literature of the high middle ages; Sticker's Karl der Gro[sz]e and Daniel von dem Bluhenden Tal.
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While "Hal stages his own redemption in Christian terms: a Lenten period of expectant, self-imposed exile is followed by a reconciliation between father and son through a decisive single combat with a rebellious enemy" (7), it is obvious that he is not a Christ figure but a Machiavellian prince crafting his public image.
95) provides a survey of the Roman warrior, an analysis of strategy and campaigns, and a survey of the role of single combat in battle.
In addition, assumptions about religion and politics underlie many cases of single combat since a man could well be upholding the integrity of his faith or his monarch by means of the duel.
Not being content with messing about with the date of the battle - it's three months out - they decided to rewrite history by having Robert the Bruce engaged in single combat with King Edward I of England.
Consider a few of the people who are involved in a single combat mission before the aircraft ever even takes off: analysts use remote sensing satellite data and other intelligence to select the targets and the weapons needed against them; operations planners lay out the mission, prepare the air tasking order, and transmit it to combat units--usually over military communication satellites; space operators ensure GPS and other assets are constantly ready to support; logisticians get the weapons ready and fuel and spare parts where they're needed; crew chiefs make sure that the aircraft is flightworthy; and forecasters use data from weather satellites to brief the aircrew prior to the mission.
Instead, Uncle Sam took them to Mosul and Baghdad and into the Sadr City suburb, where blast created Oregon's biggest single combat loss since World War II.
In the middle ages the word came to denote a knight or warrior who was willing to do single combat and perhaps die on behalf of his feudal master or king.

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