Innocent IV(redirected from Sinibaldo Fieschi)
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Innocent IV,d. 1254, pope (1243–54), a Genoese named Sinibaldo Fieschi, a distinguished jurist who studied and later taught law at the Univ. of Bologna; successor of Celestine IV. He was of a noble family. Although he had been regarded as sympathetic to the empire, once pope he quickly took up the papal struggle with Frederick IIFrederick II,
1194–1250, Holy Roman emperor (1220–50) and German king (1212–20), king of Sicily (1197–1250), and king of Jerusalem (1229–50), son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI and of Constance, heiress of Sicily.
..... Click the link for more information. and the HohenstaufenHohenstaufen
, German princely family, whose name is derived from the castle of Staufen built in 1077 by a Swabian count, Frederick. In 1079, Frederick married Agnes, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, and was created duke of Swabia.
..... Click the link for more information. . After a futile treaty he felt unsafe in Rome and fled to Lyons, where he convened the Council of Lyons (1245; see Lyons, First Council ofLyons, First Council of
, 1245, 13th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convened at Lyons, France, by Pope Innocent IV to deal with his struggle with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II.
..... Click the link for more information. ). Frederick was condemned again and declared deposed, and Innocent supported Henry Raspe and, later, William II of Holland as pretenders to the imperium. He also tried to get an English or French prince to take Sicily as a fief, but Frederick was too strong. Frederick died as the pope was opening a crusade against him (1250). Innocent did not spare the other Hohenstaufen, Conrad IVConrad IV,
1228–54, German king (1237–54), king of Sicily and of Jerusalem (1250–54), son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. He was elected (1237) king of the Romans at his father's instigation after Frederick had deposed Conrad's older brother Henry in
..... Click the link for more information. and ManfredManfred
, c.1232–1266, king of Sicily (1258–66), the last Hohenstaufen on that throne. An illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Manfred was regent in Sicily for his brother Conrad IV.
..... Click the link for more information. , but after finding them invincible in Sicily, he recognized ConradinConradin
, 1252–68, duke of Swabia, titular king of Jerusalem and Sicily, the last legitimate Hohenstaufen, son of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad IV. While Conradin was still a child in Germany, his uncle Manfred made himself (1258) king of Sicily.
..... Click the link for more information. as king of Sicily. Innocent was almost wholly occupied with his quarrel with the Hohenstaufen, and the taxes he levied to continue it made him unpopular with clergy and laity alike. He was succeeded by Alexander IV.
(secular name, Sinibaldo Fieschi). Born circa 1195 in Genoa; died Dec. 7, 1254, in Naples. Pope from 1243.
Innocent IV continued the fierce struggle that had flared up during the papacy of Gregory IX against the German emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen. In 1245 he convoked an ecumenical council in Lyon which deposed Frederick II. Innocent supported the Italian cities in their fight for independence from the emperor; he advanced two candidates to replace Frederick II on the German throne— in 1246, Henry Raspe, the landgrave of Thuringia, and in 1247, William II, the Count of Holland [Emperor William of Holland]. After the death of Frederick II (1250), Innocent IV fought against his successor, Conrad IV. He actively supported the Teutonic Order’s piratical policy in Eastern Europe. In 1245 he sent Piano Carpini on a diplomatic mission to the great khan of the Mongols.