see SpahisSpahis
or Sipahis
, Ottoman cavalry. The Spahis were organized in the 14th cent. on a feudal basis. The officers held fiefs (timars) granted to them by the sultan and commanded the personal loyalty of the peasants who worked the land.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The police consist of the frontline sipahis who, unfortunately, are again the sad casualties in any bomb blast or terrorist operation.
In those vilayets and regions where there are voynuks, voynuks [must gurad]; in the areas where there are no voynuks-musellems and people of [the local] sipahis [must be engaged].
Ve buyurdum ki, yeniceri oglani cem' olub yuz veyuz elliser nefere yetisdukce defter ile mutemed adamma kosubve kadilar dahi bile mutemed adam kosub ve of vilayetlerde ve voynuk olan yerlerde voynuk; voynuk olmayan yerlerde musellemden ve sipahi adamlanndan anlann maksuduna kifayet edecek mikdari kimesneleri bile kosub Istanbul'da Yeniceri Agasina gondereler ki, yolda ve izde tamam mahfuz ve mazbut olub kimesnesi gitmek ve gaybet eylemek ihtimali olmaya.
The detailed registers of the Balkan provinces from the second half of the fifteenth--sixteenth century, however, mention only a few Janissaries who served as rank-and-file soldiers in the sipahi cavalry.
Here was a swarm of Bektashis now, heading his way; their wandering troupes had vastly increased in number over the last few years--they, and the companies following the ayans and derebeys, the warlords beginning to take advantage of Osmanli generosity by seizing control of timars held by weak sipahis who no longer had the courage and strength to protect their lands.
As such, artisans and peasants, instead of merchants and landlords, were assisted through the dissolution of mercantile oligarchies and restrictions on what sipahis and other employers could extract from their labor.
6) It has been estimated that by 1475 there were 22,000 sipahis in Anatolia and 17,000 in Rumelia.
This was a complex structure that included various intermediaries who were hired by tax recipients, such as the Sipahis, to facilitate the working of the system.
Notable are the sipahis and janissaries, the Celali revolts, major reform initiatives, and important fortresses and commanders.
We will likely continue to debate the integration of the 'askeri class into the provincial economy as a cause or result of the collapse of both sipahi and Janissary military effectiveness.
Soyle ki, Yavuz Sultan Selim zamaninda, 1514 senesinde, sipahi ve cebelilerin* sayisi 140 bini bulmustur.
Sipahi ve yetistirdigi cebelilerin, genellikle kirsal alanda olduklari dusunulunce, tasrada asayisi teminde de ne kadar onemli olduklari diger bir gercektir.