John Franklin

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Franklin, John

 

Born Apr. 16, 1786, in Spilsby, Lincolnshire; died June 11, 1847, on King William Island. English arctic explorer; naval officer.

In 1818, Franklin commanded the Trent, one of two vessels in D. Buchan’s expedition, the purpose of which was to reach the Bering Strait by a northeasterly route across the North Pole. However, the ships turned back at 80° 34′ N lat., north of Spitsbergen, because of thick ice.

From 1819 to 1822, Franklin headed an expedition that crossed Canadian territory from York Factory on Hudson Bay to Coronation Gulf. The expedition explored the northern coast of the American continent near the mouth of the Coppermine River before making the difficult return passage to Hudson Bay.

From 1825 to 1827, Franklin headed another Canadian expedition. At the mouth of the Mackenzie River, the group divided. Franklin’s party proceeded west along the coast in two boats, while a party led by J. Richardson proceeded east in the two other boats belonging to the expedition. Richardson’s group then sailed up the Coppermine River and the Dease River to the Great Bear Lake, from which they turned south, sailing again along the Mackenzie River. Together, the two groups explored the northern coast of North America from 148° 52′ to 109° 25′ W long, and a large part of the territory around the Great Bear and Great Slave lakes.

In 1845, Franklin led an expedition on the ships Erebus and Terror in search of the Northwest Passage. All the participants in the expedition perished. The remnants of the expedition were discovered on the coast of King William Island by F. L. McClintock during his voyage of 1857–59.

A cape, a gulf, a strait, and a mountain range in Canada and Alaska are named in honor of Franklin.

WORKS

Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the Years 1819–22 [vols. 1–2]. London, 1823.
Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea in the Years 1825–27. London, 1829.

REFERENCES

Arkticheskiepokhody Dzhona Franklina. London, 1937.
Magidovich, I. P. Istoriia otkrytiia i issledovaniia Severnoi Ameriki, p. 337. Moscow, 1962.
Davydov, Iu. V. Dzhon Franklin, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1974.

S. N. KUMKES

References in classic literature ?
They had sailed with Sir John Franklin to the North Pole, and ridden with Havelock to the Relief of Lucknow, and when they were not lighthouses firmly based on rock for the guidance of their generation, they were steady, serviceable candles, illuminating the ordinary chambers of daily life.
Critique: Originally published in 1859, Thirty Years in the Arctic Regions is an intense, true-life tale of polar exploration in wild lands, before the ill-fated sea expedition from which neither author Sir John Franklin nor his 129-man crew would ever return.
They also saw the unveiling of the first vessel to be designed and built under the National Shipbuilding Strategy (NSS)--the Canadian Coast Guard's first Offshore Fisheries Science Vessel (OFSV), the Sir John Franklin.
The expedition, commanded by Sir John Franklin RN, consisted of two Royal Navy vessels: HMS Erebus and HMS Terror.
The Terror, along with a companion ship, the Erebus, and their English captain, Sir John Franklin, got caught in ice, and he and more than 120 crewmen eventually perished.
HMS Terror, on a mission led by Sir John Franklin to find the Northwest Passage, was abandoned by its crew in 1848 after it became trapped in ice.
Last seen in the 1840s while under the command of Sir John Franklin, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror have long been among the most sought-after prizes in marine archaeology and the subject of songs, poems and novels.
Few Canadians who read newspapers or watch mainstream media could have missed the euphoria in September 2014, when one of the long-lost ships of the Sir John Franklin Expedition, HMS Erebus, was found at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean by a diverse team of public and private partners.
Located some 600 km northwest of the Red River Settlement (now Winnipeg), the Devon Mission began when explorer Sir John Franklin sent word to England in 1819 that the trading post there would make an excellent place for a mission.
This book follows the travels of British explorer Sir John Franklin on his doomed expedition to the Arctic.
Native peoples traversed the Northwest Passage for thousands of years before Sir John Franklin arrived.
Sir John Franklin, a British Royal Navy officer and Arctic explorer, led 129 men and the two ships that departed England in 1845 to search for the Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean but disappeared a year later in 1846.