Sisymbrium


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Sisymbrium

 

a genus of plants of the family Cruciferae. They are annual or perennial herbs with pinnatipartite or pinnatifid leaves. The petals are yellow; the fruit is a silique. There are approximately 90 species of Sisymbrium, found primarily in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, South America (the Andes), and southern Africa. In the USSR there are about 25 species, found along rocky slopes and on the steppes and as weeds in fields, gardens, kitchen gardens, and along roads. Among the widely distributed annual or wintering weeds of the temperate belt are 5. loeselii and hedge mustard (S. officinalis). In southern European Russian and Middle Asia the wintering weed tumbling mustard (S. altissimum) is common, and Volga mustard (S. volgense), which is propagated by root shoots, is found around the lower reaches of the Volga, the Don, and in the Northern Caucasus. 5. polymorphum grows in Middle Asia.

Weed species of Sisymbrium form many small seeds, which contain up to 30 percent fatty oil. They grow well at temperatures of 10°-15°C and come up from a depth of not more than 3 cm. Many species of Sisymbrium are harmful or toxic plants, whose seeds contain glycosides of the sinigrin type, which break down and form mustard oils with a pungent smell and burning taste. The weeds can be controlled by autumn harrowing of winter crop plantings, timely care of plowed crops, and the application of herbicides.

In pastures and fallow lands S. altissimum and S. loeselii are eaten when young by camels and sheep and make good silage. The seeds of some species of Sisymbrium are used in Asia instead of mustard.

Guliavnik, the Russian name for Sisymbrium, is infrequently used to describe species of the genus Descurainia of the family Cruciferae. D. sophia, an annual weed that attacks mainly winter crops, is common in the USSR. Control measures are the same as those for the genus Sisymbrium.

REFERENCES

Sornye rasteniia SSSR, vol. 3. Leningrad, 1935.
Kormovye rasteniia senokosov i pastbishch SSSR, vol. 2. Edited by I. V. Larin. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Gusynin, I. A. Toksikologiia iadovitykh rastenii, 4th ed. Moscow,1962.

L. I. KAZAKEVICH

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I I Sporadic species: Artemisia absinthium 2; Conringia planisiliqua 18; Galium aparine 7; Galium spurium 20; Geranium rotundifolium 22; Impatiens parviflora 19; Parietaria serbica 4(1); Phleum graecum 15; Pimpinella peregrina 21; Silene ladygini 4; Sisymbrium loeselii 5; Taraxacum sp.
drought and overgrazing reduces the number of medicinal plant The survey shows that most of the plants use in traditional herbal medicine in the koHpayh contains various plant genus Thymus (Achillea), (Ziziphora), (Alyssum), Sisymbrium (Descurainia), and (cichorium)The people this area employ the Peucedanum Aucheri.
Important species in the more-arid areas included winter annuals such as globe mallows (Sphaeralcea), native and nonnative mustard species (Brassica, Sisymbrium, Lesquerella, Descurainia), nievitas (Coryphantha), plantains (Plantago), filaree (Erodium cicutarium), California poppy (Eschscholzia mexicana), broadleaf combseed (Pectocarya platycarpa), and red-maids (Calandrinia ciliata).
crus-galli (9 h), Sisymbrium irio (6 h), Sonchus oleraceus (4 h) (Dahlquist et al.
Common name Scientific name Class Life cycle * Downy brome Bromus tectorum Grass WA London rocket Sisymbrium irio Broadleaf WA Creeping thistle Circium arvense Broadleaf CP Yellow goats-beard Tragopogon dubius Grass SP Field bindweed Convolvulus arvensis Broadleaf CP Bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon Grass CP Foxtail barely Hordeum jubatum Grass SA Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Broadleaf SP Quackgrass Agropyron repence Grass CP Russian knapweed Acroptilon repens Broadleaf CP lambsquarters Chenopodium album Broadleaf SA Plantain Plantago spp.
Exotics species included Alliaria petiolata, Lamium purpureum, Sisymbrium loeselii, and Stellaria media.
Roced y berth ydi un arall - Sisymbrium officinale, 'hedge mustard' yn Saesneg.
Ootanga Oil Citrullus vulgaris Papaya Seed Oil Carica papaya Parinari oil Parinari Curatellifolia (Parinari) Seed Oil Phulwara butter Madhuca Butyraceae Raspberry Seed Oil Rubus idaeus Sal butter Shorea Robusta Seed Butter Seabuckthorn Oil Hippophae rhamnoides Sisymbrium Irio Oil Sisymbrium irio Shorea Robusta Butter Shorea robusta Tamanu oil Calophyllum inophyllum Ucu butter Virola surinamensis Ximenia oil Ximenia Americana (Ximenia) Seed Oil Butters from hydrogenated oils or admixtures excluded.
diandrus, Festuca octoflora, Avena barbata, Erodium cicutarium, and Sisymbrium altissimum.
2008a, b) on the influence of resident and foreign AM on growth invasiveness of alien Anthemis cotula in Kashmir Himalaya vis-a-vis the effect of four common co-occurring neighbours, Conyza canadensis, Galinsoga parviflora, Sisymbrium loeselii and Daucus carota.
recurva 1 [+ or -] 1 1 [+ or -] 1 Medicago sativa (non-native) 0 0 Nasturtium officinale 0 <1 Polygonum punctatum <1 1 [+ or -] 1 Rumex crispus (non-native) 0 0 Schoenoplectus pungens 100 [+ or -] 0 26 [+ or -] 8 Sisymbrium Trio (non-native) <1 0 Sonchus asper (non-native) 0 0 Typha domingensis 0 0 Unidentified seedlings <1 <1 Total percentage of cover by vegetation 104 [+ or -] 3 53 [+ or -] 15 Thatch of Schoenoplectus 30 [+ or -] 9 7 [+ or -] 3 Bare ground 0 0 Depth of water (mm) 38 [+ or -] 6 47 [+ or -] 4 Season Spring 2002 Species Control Treatment Anemopsis californica 0 0 Aster subulatusvar.