Sixtus IV


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Related to Sixtus IV: Francesco della Rovere, Pope Sixtus V

Sixtus IV

(sĭk`stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. Sixtus was expected to be a reformer, but he was too much embroiled in political difficulties. The struggle with the French monarchy over the control of the church in France was complicated by Louis XI's efforts to replace Ferdinand I of Naples with a Frenchman. A quarrel with Lorenzo de' MediciMedici, Lorenzino de'
, 1515–47, member of the cadet branch of the Medici family. A boon companion of Alessandro de' Medici, he secretly plotted the duke's murder—possibly out of republican convictions.
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 became critical after the Pazzi conspiracyPazzi conspiracy
, 1478, plot against Lorenzo de' Medici (Lorenzo il Magnifico) and his brother Giuliano, designed to end the hegemony of the Medici in the Florentine state and to enlarge papal territory.
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 (1478), since an important instigator was Girolamo Riario, nephew of Sixtus, and the pope seems to have had prior knowledge of the plot. He waged war on Florence afterward. Though a reconciliation was made in 1479, Lorenzo joined Louis XI in threatening schism. Relations with Italian states other than Florence were also unhappy. Sixtus consented (1478) to the establishment of the Spanish InquisitionInquisition
, tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church established for the investigation of heresy. The Medieval Inquisition

In the early Middle Ages investigation of heresy was a duty of the bishops.
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 and then found the Spanish ignoring his rebukes for illegal procedure and jurisdiction and his demands for moderation. He welcomed into the Papal States the Jews expelled from Spain. The behavior of his favored nephews was disgraceful; a happy exception was Giuliano della Rovere (later Pope Julius II). Sixtus was an excellent administrator of the city and did much to improve and beautify Rome. He was an important benefactor of the Vatican Library, and he founded the Sistine Chapel. He summoned Josquin Desprez to Rome and legislated for the improvement of church music. He was succeeded by Innocent VIII.
References in periodicals archive ?
Both Platina's essay on Sixtus IV in the Lives of the Popes and the murals in the hospital of Santo Spirito chronicle the life of a living pope.
Plus III (1503) was the nephew of Plus II (1458-64), and Julius II (1503-13) the nephew of Sixtus IV (1471-84)--see Kelly, 234-56.
He adopted the name Sixtus in emulation of Sixtus IV della Rovere, the general of the Conventual Franciscans and defender of the Virgin and indirect founder of the Urbino dynasty through his nephew's marriage alliance to the soon-to-be extinct Montefeltro line.
In its aftermath, the king acted as a mediator between the Florentines and Pope Sixtus IV.
46] Indeed, even though it is to the Della Rovere model that we look for surviving Roman antecedents for interment in the choir, given d'Estouteville's ties to the nipoti through Sixtus IV, and the early date of the 1450s for the beginnings of his interventions at Sant'Agostino, who is to say that he, a Frenchman, was not the logical originator -- the missing Roman first link -- in the development of this idea?
But the popes who succeeded this astute and prescient pontiff, notably Sixtus IV, Innocent VIII, and Alexander VI, were less interested in maintaining peace in the peninsula and more concerned with promoting the aggrandizement of their families.
15] By the time Antonio Pollaiuo lo executed the tomb for Pope Sixtus IV in 1484, he included Perspectiva as the Eighth Liberal Art.
The outbreak of this war followed the failure to remove Lorenzo de' Medici from power through an assassination attempt (his brother was killed while Lorenzo escaped) orchestrated by the Pazzi family with the approval of Pope Sixtus IV.
52] Humanists dedicated over forty translations and original works to Cosimo, making him one of Quarttocento Italy's foremost literary patrons, rivaled only by Nicholas V, Sixtus IV, and Alfonso of Aragon.
They sided with the duke because the Orsini were in the employ of Pope Sixtus IV, who was then attacking Florence.
53) Among the numerous late-Quattrocento codices derived from Guarino and Tifernate's texts, one is known to have been owned by Marsilio Ficino and another to have been in the Vatican Library of Sixtus IV.