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volcano, 2,684 ft (818 m) high, S Iceland, at SW edge of the VatnajökullVatnajökull
, glacier, c.3,150 sq mi (8,160 sq km), SE Iceland; largest glacier in Europe. At an elevation of from 4,200 to 6,100 ft (1,280–1,860 m), it covers a huge volcanic plateau, which includes the Grímsvötn caldera, Iceland's third largest and
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 glacier. Its eruption in 1783 was one of the more devastating on record, leading to the deaths of a quarter of Iceland's inhabitants (mainly due to a famine that resulted from the eruption's effects). Haze from the eruption spread over parts of Europe, where some experts believe it affected the inhabitants' health. Surrounding the crater are the Lakagígar series of c.100 volcanic rifts.


See A. Witze and J. Kanipe, Island on Fire (2015).



a volcanic chain in southern Iceland, near the southwestern edge of the Vatnajökull glacier. Maximum elevation, 818 m.

The Laki chain consists of 115 craters extending 25 km along a tectonic fissure. There was a major eruption in 1783–84, during which some 12.2 cu km of lava were expelled. A lava field of 565 sq km was formed. Approximately 0.3 cu km of volcanic ash was spread over 6,000 sq km. The eruption caused the death of 10,521 people, as well as 10,000 cattle, 27,000 horses, and about 180,000 sheep.