Skaz

Skaz

 

(1) A type of narrative in a work of fiction, recounted by a character whose status and manner of speech differ from the viewpoint and style of the author himself. The contrast and interrelationship between these semantic and linguistic positions are the bases of the skaz’s artistic effect. The speech of the actual or implied narrator of skaz lies outside the written literary norm of the given epoch; it may be patterned on dialect, speech typical of a certain occupation or popular language. It may also be a complex combination of these with the literary norm, as in the works of V. Dal’, N. Leskov, and M. Zoshchenko.

A literary work may consist entirely of skaz, or the skaz within it may be accompanied by the author’s introduction, afterword, or interpolations. Skaz differs from stylization in its use of extraliterary genres and types of speech. Works whose narrator’s speech is not in contrast to that of the author are not considered to utilize skaz; examples are I. S. Turgenev’s short stories. Foreign, particularly Anglo-American, literary theory and criticism has no concept analogous to skaz, but studies the same problem of the interrelationship between the different narrative viewpoints in a work that are subordinate or in contrast to the viewpoint of the principal narrator, or centralizing consciousness.

(2) In Soviet folklore studies, skaz, like the term “oral folktale,” designates all genres of oral prose whose content is not fantastic. These include memoraty—first-person tales—and fabulaty— narratives independent of any participant in the event narrated (tales, legends, and bylichki or supposedly realistic stories). The term skazanie (narrative tale) is sometimes used with the same meaning.

REFERENCES

Eikhenbaum, B. Literatura. Leningrad, 1927.
Vinogradov, V. “Problema skaza ν stilistike.” In Poetika, fasc. 1. Leningrad, 1926.
Vinogradov, V. Stilistika; Teoriia poeticheskoi rechi; Poetika. Moscow, 1963.
Bakhtin, M. M. Problemypoetiki Dostoevskogo, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1963.
Chistov, K. V. “Skaz.” In Literaturnaia entsiklopediia, vol. 6. Moscow, 1971.

A. P. CHUDAKOV and K. V. CHISTOV (skaz in folklore)

References in periodicals archive ?
9) Based on reports of the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs published in Kaliningradskie Arkhivy [the Kaliningrad Archive] series (Kalingrad State Archive and Yantarnyi Skaz Publishers, 1998, page 12).
6) The archetypal polar opposition between management and labor unions is masterfully presented in A Whole Life Ahead, although (or perhaps precisely because) its appearance is filtered through a consistently comic narrative skaz.
Esta memoria biotica, alem de recriar o mundo de referencias do caboclo Miguel, serve como contramemoria no sentido de Foucault * e Lipsitz * por sua caracteristica oral; memoria esta que via discurso skaz (6) resiste ao poder ditatorial da palavra escrita determinada pela historiografia e discurso oficiais:
Burak describes several different tactics that can be undertaken in rendering skaz and realia in English.
Mikhail Bakhtin, sobre los conceptos de la heteroglosia y el skaz, en Esthetique et theorie du roman.
Los relatos de Bioy son excelentes ejemplos de skaz narrativo, y asumen las caracteristicas propias del discurso no escrito sino dicho.
Ese futuro para Leskov empezo con la admiracion de Viktor Sklovski (en La tecnica de la prosa) y de los formalistas, que aplaudieron en los anos veinte su heterodoxia linguistica, a veces trilingue --en ruso, ucraniano y polaco-- y lo ungieron como un maestro del skaz, tecnica narrativa basada en el predominio de lo oral, rica en retruecanos neologismos, y de la cual La pulga de acero es un ejemplo.
Los formalistas rusos denominaron a esta tecnica Skaz (Mey 2000: 166; LitKult, s.
1) The critic Mark Lipovetsky has noted that after reading a few stories the reader quickly encounters a typical skaz mode of narration that is repeated, ad infinitum, throughout the rest of Popov's work.
Entre los puntos en comun entre Sicarios y el testimonio es que la novela es en parte, como ha escrito Jose Cardona, lo que Bajtin y Medvedev llaman skaz, o 'A manner of narration that draws attention to itself, creating the illusion of ad actual oral narration' (Cardona 393).
The drawing would offer a story (rasskaz, a narrative), perhaps a skaz (a tale) or a skazanie (a legend), and the story it would tell (always in the conditional) is also the Ode's first portrait of Stalin: "of him who altered [sdvinul, shifted, moved, displaced] the world's [mira, the universe's, also the village's, the mir's, also peace's] axis [as axle, spindle].
Para Eijenbaun el skaz es la presencia pura de la oralidad en el relato, en la que el narrador adquiere cuerpo fisico.