To evaluate the root systems, at the V6 and R3 growth stages, five plants were collected per repetition in sequence at the sowing line using a 40x40x25 (length, width and depth) soil monolith
Trap and soil monolith
sampled edaphic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in Araucaria angustifolia forest.
Manure slurry, of differing DM contents, was then applied to the corresponding soil monolith
(12 monoliths per slurry DM treatment).
15]N-labelled cow urine containing 2 different nitrification inhibitors and/or a urease inhibitor, applied to soil monolith
To construct each lysimeter, a soil monolith
was exposed by excavation in increments of approximately 20 cm, and the open-ended stainless steel container was placed over the monolith and downward pressure applied to slide the container over the monolith.
A soil monolith
of 10 x 10 x 10 cm was carefully removed in the center of each plot, and the cables were led into the pit from outside the plot through a PVC tube deep in the mineral soil.
After soil placement, the top 10 cm of each soil monolith
was removed and thoroughly mixed with a single application of combined and increasing concentrations of cadmium (Cd: equivalent to 1, 5, 10 mg [kg.
The internal cutting ring created a small gap between the soil monolith
and the cylinder wall, which was sealed using petroleum jelly to prevent edge-flow effects (Cameron et al.
Finally, perforated steel percolation pans were forced into the sandstone bedrock at the bottom edge of the casing to complete the isolation of the soil monolith
A soil monolith
was made of a profile extracted from this pit at Site A (Fig.
As soil volume increases, it reaches a value at which flow processes and transport parameters are independent of the size of the soil monolith
Undisturbed soil monolith
lysimeters, 50 cm diameter and 70 cm deep, were collected 3 weeks after the pasture had been sown and the seeds had germinated.