Soil Solution

Soil Solution

 

(the liquid phase of soil), water with dissolved gases, minerals, and organic matter that reaches the soil after passing through the atmosphere and percolating through the soil horizons. The solution may be in a film, capillary, or gravitational form, depending on the moisture content of the soil. It participates in soil formation, physicochemical and biochemical reactions, the cycle of matter in soil, and plant nutrition. Its composition is determined by soil-forming processes, vegetation, general climatic conditions, the season, weather, and man’s activity, such as the addition of fertilizers.

Soil moisture contains dissolved gases, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and ammonia; dissolved mineral substances, such as salts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium and compounds of aluminum, iron, manganese, and silica (as the ion SiO44- and in colloidal form); and dissolved organic matter—fatty organic acids and their salts, humic acids, sugars, and amino acids. The concentration of substances is low (usually not exceeding 0.1 percent) in nonsaline soils but very high in solonchaks and solonetses (as much as several percent and higher). A high content of substances in the soil solution is injurious to plants, making it difficult for water and nutrients to reach them and thus causing physiological dryness.

The reaction of the soil solution varies from one soil group to another. Podzolic, gray-forest, and peat soils and red and yellow earths have an acid pH; sodium carbonate solonetses have an alkaline pH; and ordinary chernozems, and meadow and cinna-monic soils have a neutral or weakly alkaline pH. An excessively acid or alkaline soil solution has an adverse effect on plant growth and development.

N. S. AVDONIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Urea in animal urine undergoes hydrolysis and is catalysed by the enzyme urease and increased soil solution pH, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved phosphorus concentrations (Shand et al.
Bioavailability depends on the metal species present in the soil solution and upon geochemical fractions in the soil solid phase (Jeyakumar et al.
As for the alkalinity of Bahrain's soils, while salinity makes nutrients unavailable for plants by causing salts in the root cells to flow out into the saltier soil solution, high alkalinity "locks up" up nutrients, particularly micro nutrients and phosphorus, making them unavailable for absorption by the root hairs.
The pH of the JSO-1: JSO-2 mixed soil solution shifted towards neutral (pH 7) within 1 day shaking (Fig.
The soil solution consists of soil water containing dissolved nutrients.
The next step is to describe that carbon dioxide given off by roots as a product of aerobic respiration reacts with water in the soil solution to form carbonic acid that dissociates to a proton and a bicarbonate ion.
The greater the concentration of solutes in the soil solution, the greater the osmotic potential, and the less available the water.
Ion exchange is the interchange of ions in the soil solution with ions adsorbed to the surface of soil clay minerals, organic matter, or other soil colloids.
He covers macroscale features, microscopic to atomic orbital soil chemical characteristics, biological and organic components, soil air and soil solution, electrical and titrimetric measurements, extraction, spectroscopy, chromatography and speciation.
Labile phosphorus (labile-P) is thought to be the form readily available form to plants and soil microorganisms and is composed basically of various pH-dependent orthophosphate ions; which ate related through different types of interactions with both the soil solution and solid phase (Mattingly 1974, Morel et al.
Plants take up P from soil solution, so water-soluble P fertilizers are generally more effective than properly soluble forms.