This tale would have the Covenant emerge, fully-formed, from the tortured head of Archibald Johnston of Wariston, sweep Scotland in a wave of millenarian enthusiasm, and be foisted on England through the device of the Solemn League and Covenant
Vallance argues persuasively that far from being largely secular and pragmatic proposals, the theology that lay behind early calls for the Protestation, the Vow and Covenant, and finally the Solemn League and Covenant
was profoundly shaped by a Calvinist worldview and its pious concern that God's wrath would be visited upon a nation still rife with what they perceived to be the worship of Catholic idols.
He writes that the 1912 Ulster Solemn League and Covenant
evoked `seventeenth-century religious war'; while it is true that the Covenant derived its title from the 1638 Scottish National Covenant, the later document owed nothing else to the earlier one.