solvent extraction


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solvent extraction

[′säl·vənt ik‚strak·shən]
(chemical engineering)
The separation of materials of different chemical types and solubilities by selective solvent action; that is, some materials are more soluble in one solvent than in another, hence there is a preferential extractive action; used to refine petroleum products, chemicals, vegetable oils, and vitamins.
(nucleonics)
A process for removing uranium fuel residue from used fuel elements of a reactor; it generally involves decay cooling under water for up to 6 months, removal of cladding, dissolution, separation of reusable fuel, decontamination, and disposal of radioactive wastes. Also known as liquid extraction.

Solvent extraction

A technique, also called liquid extraction, for separating the components of a liquid solution. This technique depends upon the selective dissolving of one or more constituents of the solution into a suitable immiscible liquid solvent. It is particularly useful industrially for separation of the constituents of a mixture according to chemical type, especially when methods that depend upon different physical properties, such as the separation by distillation of substances of different vapor pressures, either fail entirely or become too expensive.

Industrial plants using solvent extraction require equipment for carrying out the extraction itself (extractor) and for essentially complete recovery of the solvent for reuse, usually by distillation.

The petroleum refining industry is the largest user of extraction. In refining virtually all automobile lubricating oil, the undesirable constituents such as aromatic hydrocarbons are extracted from the more desirable paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons. By suitable catalytic treatment of lower boiling distillates, naphthas rich in aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and the xylenes may be produced. The latter are separated from paraffinic hydrocarbons with suitable solvents to produce high-purity aromatic hydrocarbons and high-octane gasoline. Other industrial applications include so-called sweetening of gasoline by extraction of sulfur-containing compounds; separation of vegetable oils into relatively saturated and unsaturated glyceride esters; recovery of valuable chemicals in by-product coke oven plants; pharmaceutical refining processes; and purifying of uranium.

Solvent extraction is carried out regularly in the laboratory by the chemist as a commonplace purification procedure in organic synthesis, and in analytical separations in which the extraordinary ability of certain solvents preferentially to remove one or more constituents from a solution quantitatively is exploited. Batch extractions of this sort, on a small scale, are usually done in separatory funnels, where the mechanical agitation is supplied by handshaking of the funnel.

References in periodicals archive ?
15 shows a schematic diagram of the solvent extraction method developed to simplify the extraction process when multiple steps are required.
The decrease of plasma aldosterone immunoactivity we observed following solvent extraction is most likely a result of the presence of biologically inactive hydrophilic aldosterone metabolites such as aldosterone glucuronide (1) which do not partition into the solvent.
Solvent extraction: For solvent extraction, n-hexane was used using Soxhelt's apparatus.
For solvent extraction, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM) and ethanol were used in this work.
Combining mechanical solvent removal with conventional solvent extraction significantly increases the extraction rate while simultaneously reducing the amount of extraction solvent required to produce ultrahigh strength UHMWPE fiber.
The delivery of these final cerium oxide products marks the conclusion of the six month Solvent Extraction Pilot Plant operation at ANSTO Minerals test facility near Sydney.
The aim of this research was to investigate chemical compounds and antimicrobial activities of ginger oil extracted by two difference methods namely solvent extraction and hydrodistillation.
In the past few years, increased income levels in rural areas has encouraged industrialists to set up solvent extraction plants to cater to the growing demand of cooking oil and ghee across the country in general and in the rural areas in particular.
International Resource News-May 9, 2011--Anvil Mining Limited produces copper cathode at Kinsevere Stage II Solvent Extraction and Electro-Winning mine(C)1994-2011 ENPublishing - http://www.
Oxford Instruments says low-field NMR technology offers an environmentally preferable alternative to solvent extraction in research and development laboratory work and quality control tests of oil or fat content of foods and seeds.
The gloveboxes are fitted with spectroscopic capability for monitoring actinide oxidation states, including in-situ analysis of process liquors in the solvent extraction rigs or mixed oxide dissolution vessel.
The Caserones plant, which is designed to produce 30,000 tonnes of copper cathodes a year, will perform solvent extraction using Outotec's vertical smooth flow (VSF) technology and tank farm, as well as electrowinning using the company's permanent cathode, acid mist capture and stripping technologies.