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1. a member of a tall dark-skinned people inhabiting Somalia
2. the language of this people, belonging to the Cushitic subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages



(Somalis), a people living on the Somali Peninsula in Africa, in the Somali Democratic Republic, in neighboring parts of Ethiopia, in Kenya, in Djibouti, and in several other countries. They number about 4.9 million persons (1973, estimate) and speak Somali, a Cushitic language. The Somali are Sunni Muslims.

In the interior regions of the peninsula, elements of clan-tribal life have survived among the Somali. The main occupation is livestock raising (camels and cattle); agriculture is practiced chiefly in the Webi Shebeli and Juba river valleys. As a result of the national liberation struggle of the Somali in British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland, the sovereign Somali Republic was formed in 1960.


Rait, M. V. “Somaliitsy.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1959, no. 1.



the language of the Somali people. Somali is spoken in the Somali Democratic Republic, southern Djibouti, eastern Ethiopia (Ogaden), and northeastern Kenya by approximately 4.9 million people (1973, estimate). It belongs to the Cushitic group of Hamito-Semitic, or Afrasian, languages. The principal dialects are Isâk, Issa, Darod, and Hawiyya.

In Somali, vowels are opposed to one another on the basis of length, fronting, and tonal-stress pattern, which is also employed as a grammatical marker. There are many postdorsal consonants. Substantives and verbs constitute the basic word classes. Two genders and case forms are distinguished, often only by means of tone. Most substantives change gender in the plural; dependent members of the subject and object type are almost never connected. There are definite and indefinite articles. Government is preverbal; verbs are conjugated to express person, number, and tense. Object, and sometimes subject, pronouns are obligatory for the verb. In a number of archaic verbs, conjugation is of the prefixal-suffixal type, as in the Semitic languages. Inflection and word-formation are mainly suffixal.

The sentence must contain a “predicatizing” phrase particle, which logically accentuates one member of the sentence. Attributes are placed after dependent words. A writing system based on the Latin alphabet was introduced in 1973.


Zholkovskii, A. K. Sintaksis somali. Moscow, 1971.
Dolgopol’skii, A. B. Sravnitel’no-istoricheskaia fonetika kushitskikh iazykov. Moscow, 1973.
Bell, C. R. V. The Somali Language. London, 1953.
Moreno, M. M. II Somalo della Somalia. Rome, 1955.
Andrzejewski, B. W. The Declensions of Somali Nouns. London, 1964.
Abraham, R. C. Somali-English Dictionary. London, 1964.
Abraham, R. C. English-Somali Dictionary. London, 1967.


References in periodicals archive ?
Il primo caso riguarda le due donne di Sacid Saleeban, un giovane somalo dai tratti picareschi che si improvvisa prima regista della diaspora somala negli Stati Uniti e poi maldestro imprenditore commerciale.
Nella mappa personale di Igiaba la piazza si ricollega a due uomini: il nonno di Igiaba, Ornar Scego, interprete del famigerato generale Graziani, e successivamente promotore delf indipendenza e ministro del primo governo somalo, e lo zio di Igiaba, Osman Ornar Scego, vittima di un omicidio politico nel periodo immediatamente precedente all'avvento di Siad Barre al potere.
Marinez Somalo holds the post of the camerlengo, or chamberlain, who will be chiefly responsible for running the Holy See in the period between the death of a pope and the election of a new one.
Cardinal Somalo, who becomes an interim administrator, had to declare the Pope was dead in the presence of the Papal Master of Ceremonies and other key members of the Papal Household.
En Las finanzas secretas de la Iglesia Berry menciona otro soborno de Maciel: cuando Eduardo Martinez Somalo estaba a cargo de la Congregacion para los Institutos de Vida Consagrada y Sociedades de Vida Apostolica, Maciel le pidio a uno de sus sacerdotes que fuera al domicilio de aquel a entregarle un sobre que contenia 90 mil dolares.
For the next six years, Maciel had the staunch support of three pivotal figures: Sodano; Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life; and Msgr.
En ALFARO BECH, Virginia y FRANCIA SOMALO, Rosa (coords.
In the meantime, the Camerlengo, or chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, becomes an interim administrator.
A su vez, los asuntos de tramite y de menor importancia han quedado en manos del cardenal camarlengo (el llamado "Papa interino"), Eduardo Martinez Somalo, y de tres cardenales asistentes elegidos por sorteo.
The camerlengo, now Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo of Spain, must then verify the death - a process which has been done by striking the Pope's forehead with a silver hammer.
En este caso, el jefe de Estado interino del Vaticano sera el espanol Eduardo Martinez Somalo, el llamado camarlengo, quien rezara ante el cuerpo del Papa, lo absolvera de sus pecados y golpeara tres veces su frente con un martillo de plata: "?
15 cover letter from Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life.