Sung Chiao-jen

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Sung Chiao-jen

(so͝ong jyou-jŭn), 1882–1913, Chinese revolutionary and political leader. He was a founding member (1905) and a leading activist in the Revolutionary Alliance (see Sun Yat-senSun Yat-sen
, Mandarin Sun Wen, 1866–1925, Chinese revolutionary. He was born near Guangzhou into a farm-owning family. He attended (1879–82) an Anglican boys school in Honolulu, where he came under Western influence, particularly that of Christianity.
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), an organization dedicated to overthrowing the Manchu dynasty in favor of a republic. After the republican revolution of 1911, Sung guided the Revolutionary Alliance into a merger with several parliamentary parties to form the KuomintangKuomintang
[Chin.,=national people's party] (KMT), Chinese and Taiwanese political party. Sung Chiao-jen organized the party in 1912, under the nominal leadership of Sun Yat-sen, to succeed the Revolutionary Alliance.
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, or Nationalist party. The parliamentary majority achieved by the Kuomintang in the elections of 1912–13 was largely due to Sung's superb organizing ability. He advocated a party cabinet to check the power of the first president, Yüan Shih-kaiYüan Shih-kai
, 1859–1916, president of China (1912–16). From 1885 to 1894 he was the Chinese resident in Korea, then under Chinese suzerainty. He supported the dowager empress, Tz'u Hsi, against the reform movement (1898) of Emperor Kuang Hsü, and she
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. Sung was assassinated, allegedly at the instigation of Yuan.

Sung Chiao-Jen


Born Apr. 6, 1882, in T’aoyüan District, Hunan Province; died Mar. 22, 1913, in Shanghai. Chinese revolutionary.

Sung Chiao-jen joined the revolutionary movement in 1903. Together with Huang Hsing, he formed the revolutionary organization Huahsing Hui in 1904. In 1905 he joined the T’ung-meng Hui and became one of its leaders. In July 1911 he became head of the T’ung-meng Hui of Central China, which he and his supporters had founded in order to prepare for revolution in the provinces of the Yangtse River Basin. Sung was one of the leaders of the bourgeois Hsin-hai Revolution of 1911–13. He played an important role in the formation of the Kuomintang. In early 1913, the Kuomintang won a victory in the parliamentary elections and was preparing to form a cabinet headed by Sung Chiaojen. Sung Chiao-jen was assassinated on secret orders issued by Yüan Shih-k’ai.