Spandex Fiber

Spandex Fiber

 

a synthetic fiber formed from polyurethane solutions or melts or by chemical formation (polyurethane is prepared directly from a diisocyanate and diamine during fiber formation).

Spandex fibers sharply differ from natural fibers and other types of chemical fibers in physical properties. However, they are in many ways similar to rubber fibers. They are characterized by a great amount of stretch and a low modulus of elasticity. They are able to recover to original length over a very short period of time. Because spandex fibers, particularly in the stretch state, exhibit substantial strength losses at 120°C, fabrics made from them are cleaned and dyed at temperatures no higher than 90° C. The fibers turn yellow on exposure to light, whereas their other properties remain practically unchanged. Yellowing can be eliminated to a great extent with the aid of photostabilizers. Spandex fibers are resistant to hydrolytic agents during finishing, washing, and dyeing. They are also resistant to oils, acids, alkalies, and organic solvents containing chlorine.

Spandex fibers are processed in pure form or in a mixture with natural fibers or other types of chemical fibers. The added fibers are mainly used for wrapping the spandex fibers, thereby protecting the core fibers from the light. A yarn composed of 5–20 percent spandex fiber and 80–95 percent nonexpandable fiber is used to prepare fabrics for shirts, blouses, sportswear, coats, and corsets.

Spandex fibers are known by the trade names Lycra and Vy-rene (United States), SPA and Neoran (Japan), Spanzelle (Great Britain), and Vorin (Italy). In 1973, world production of spandex fibers amounted to tens of thousands of tons.

References in periodicals archive ?
Revenue and Operating Income of Zhejiang Sihai Spandex Fiber, 2009-2011
A commercial polyurethane known as Biomer, which is a medical grade of the spandex fiber material Lycra has been used extensively in construction of experimental devices.
Moran's assessment that applications for using spandex fiber are moving more to "Over End Feed" versus "RollingTake Off" for higher efficiency, higher speed and reduced waste.
Cerenol(TM) enhances the performance of a diverse portfolio of end-use products that range from running shoes and ski boots to cosmetics, automotive components and spandex fiber applications.
An extended streak beneath the RadElast name graphically conveys the movement and elongation of spandex fiber.
1960s: Lycra(R) spandex fiber, Nomex(R) advanced fibers, the first cell-free biological extract capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, ferredoxin (a biological electron-transfer agent), and plastic fiber optics were developed.
Approximately 70 percent by weight of the new LYCRA bio-derived spandex fiber comes from a renewable source made from dextrose derived from corn.
Zhangjiagang City, China, have formed a joint development in the field of melt spun spandex fiber extrusion equipment.
LYCRA HyFit[TM] fiber is a breakthrough spandex fiber for hygiene applications that is based on the existing Type-262 LYCRA([R]) XA([R]) fiber formulation currently offered by INVISTA.
Among DuPont's best known brands are Teflon(R) fluoropolymer resins, SilverStone(R) non-stick finishes, Lycra(R) brand spandex fiber, Tactel(R) nylon, Stainmaster(R) flooring systems, Kevlar(R) brand fiber, Tyvek(R) spunbonded olefin, Corian(R) solid surface material, and Conoco(R) fuels and lubricants.
Hyosung, Charlotte, NC, a producer of spandex fiber, plans to invest $210 million to increase its global spandex capacity by 50% during the next several years.
With these expansions and other additions in all four of our global regions, INVISTA is well on track to exceed our previously announced global efforts to add approximately 50 kilotons of spandex fiber production in the next three years," said David Duncan, executive vice president of INVISTA.