Spanish Broom

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Spanish Broom

 

(Spartium junceum), a bush of the family Leguminosae. The linear leaves are attached to green, straight, virgate branches. Leaf fall occurs early. The fragrant yellow flowers are monoecious and gathered into a long, loose apical raceme. The fruit is a linear, flat polyspermous bean that is weakly constricted. Spanish broom grows wild on the arid slopes in the Western Mediterranean Region and on the Canary Islands. It is cultivated in the USSR as an ornamental. It grows wild in the Crimea and the Caucasus. In Spain a durable fiber for coarse fabrics is obtained from the stems. The Spanish broom is a poisonous plant, containing the alkaloid sparteine.

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Especies invasoras historicas detectadas: Acacia cyanophylla, Ageratina adenophora, Ageratina riparia, Albizia distachya, Anredera cordifolia, Arundo donax, Centranthus ruber, Chasmanthe aethiopica, Cytisus scoparius, Mirabilis jalapa, Pelargonium inquinans, Ricinus communis, Populus alba, Senecio mikanioides, Spartium junceum, Tradescantia fluminensis, Tropaeolum majus, Ulex europaeus.
Segun los criterios seguidos, de las 35 especies aqui recogidas, creemos que 22 de ellas presentan un claro comportamiento invasor en las islas: Acacia farnesiana, Agave americana, Ageratina adenophora, Ageratina riparia, Albizia distachya, Anredera cordifolia, Arundo donax, Cardiospermum grandiflorum, Centranthus ruber, Chasmanthe aethiopica, Cytisis scoparius, Eschscholzia californica, Nicotiana, glauca, Opuntia dillenii, Opuntia maxima, Pennisetum setaceum, Phoenix dactylifera, Ricinus communis, Spartium junceum, Tradescantia fluminensis, Tropaeolum majus y Ulex europaeus.
Yesilada E, Takaishi Y, Fujita T, Sezik E (2000) Anti-ulcerogenic effects of Spartium junceum flowers on in vivo test models in rats.
en los dominios del pinar mixto con fayalbrezal Solanum marginatum Africa C, T Cunetas, campos oriental abandonados y terrenos ruderalizados, en el piso trermomediterraneo Solanum America H, P, G, T, Ambientes ruderales y pseudocapsicum del Sur C periurbanos Spartium junceum Mediterraneo H, P, G, T, Ambientes viarios y C matorrales Stenotaphrum Neotropical P, T, C, F, Terrenos con humedad secundatum L edafica, Tecomaria capensis Capense T Jardines abandonados y ambientes ruderales a baja altitud Xanthium America T, C, F, L Zonas riparias, strumarium del Norte arenales costeros, subsp.
Vicia faba "haba", Medicago sativa "alfalfa", Persea americana "palto", Spartium junceum "retama", Gladiolus sp "gladiolo", Piper angustifolium "matico", Phaseolus sp.
Physiognomic leading species are Rubus ulmifolius and Spartium junceum together with the characteristic species Calicotome villosa.