caving

(redirected from Spelunkers)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

caving

the sport of climbing in and exploring caves

Caving

 

(in mining), natural or artificially induced disruption of the stability of a rock mass. In underground mining, caving takes place as the collapse of blocks and pieces of rock into mine workings, detachment of sections of the roof rock, or shifting of an entire undermined rock stratum. Natural caving over a large area (roof sagging) is caused by dynamic loading on the mine workings and by air shocks within them. The harmful consequences of caving are prevented or minimized by the installation of supports in the workings and by controlling the behavior of the wall rock. An efficient and economical method of controlling rock pressure in long stoping faces (longwalls) is complete or partial roof caving.

The parameters of roof caving—the rate of caving of the immediate roof, which is brought about by the removal or shifting of the supports, and the rate of caving of the main roof—are determined by the properties of the rock, the depth, and the engineering and technological conditions of the operations. In the case of strong roof rocks that tend to overhang, artificially induced caving by means of explosives, hydraulic working of the rock mass, and other methods must be used. In underground mining of ore deposits, the principle of caving ores and surrounding rock in certain mining systems is the basis of mineral extraction technology. The principles governing rock caving in underground mining are studied for the purpose of designing mining systems and improving methods for the design of support and regulations for the protection of excavations and above-ground structures. In open-pit mining, the banks and rims of quarries are caved. They are made stable by the choice of the proper height and slope angle of the banks and rims, and also by anchoring the slopes, taking into account the structure, physicochemical properties, and loading. Under favorable conditions, self-caving of banks is used for separating rock from the rock mass.

V. V. ZHUKOV

caving

[′kāv·iŋ]
(mining engineering)
A mining procedure, used when the surface is expendable, in which the ore body is undercut and allowed to fall, breaking into small pieces that are recovered by passages (drifts) driven for that purpose; sublevel caving, block caving, and top slicing are examples.
(petroleum engineering)
Collapsing of the walls of a wellbore. Also known as sloughing.
References in periodicals archive ?
175 miles of Jewel Cave have been mapped by spelunkers, while the nearby Wind Cave is also nearly 150 miles long.
Answers: 1) rappel--G--use a rope to climb down from a high place; 2) troglobites--E--creatures that live in caves for their entire lives; 3) spelunkers F--old term for cavers; 4) stalagmite--B--a cave formation that rises up from the ground; 5) speleothem--A--a cave formation made by a solution dripping through rocks; 6) troglophiles--H--creatures that can live in caves or above ground; 7) stalactite--C--a cave formation that hangs down from the ceiling; 8) trogloxenes--D--creatures that visit the outer parts of caves and stay briefly
The spelunkers search for an opening, then ease forward toward the darkness at the next fold.
Fuller's text concerns a group of spelunkers who get trapped by a
These caves were discovered in 1974 and kept secret for many years by the original spelunkers.
There's "gemstone mining" for young spelunkers (www.
Or does she take each tunnel as an individual means of exit, describing in detail any and all characteristics--so that spelunkers who follow will be aware of the intricacies involved in exiting?
Some Mexican tourism officials, who promoted the Cuevas de Cuetzalan among international spelunkers, were caught by surprise by the furor created by the incident.
Acute histoplasmosis in spelunkers returning from Mato Grosso, Peru.
For spelunkers, Natural Bridge Caverns offers some of the best commercial caving in Texas.
Meet other spelunkers and go caving; check with the Vancouver Island North Visitors Association (250-949-9094, 800-903-6660; www.
Spelunkers and anyone else who enjoys caves will want to visit the Caves Area.