caving

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caving

the sport of climbing in and exploring caves

Caving

 

(in mining), natural or artificially induced disruption of the stability of a rock mass. In underground mining, caving takes place as the collapse of blocks and pieces of rock into mine workings, detachment of sections of the roof rock, or shifting of an entire undermined rock stratum. Natural caving over a large area (roof sagging) is caused by dynamic loading on the mine workings and by air shocks within them. The harmful consequences of caving are prevented or minimized by the installation of supports in the workings and by controlling the behavior of the wall rock. An efficient and economical method of controlling rock pressure in long stoping faces (longwalls) is complete or partial roof caving.

The parameters of roof caving—the rate of caving of the immediate roof, which is brought about by the removal or shifting of the supports, and the rate of caving of the main roof—are determined by the properties of the rock, the depth, and the engineering and technological conditions of the operations. In the case of strong roof rocks that tend to overhang, artificially induced caving by means of explosives, hydraulic working of the rock mass, and other methods must be used. In underground mining of ore deposits, the principle of caving ores and surrounding rock in certain mining systems is the basis of mineral extraction technology. The principles governing rock caving in underground mining are studied for the purpose of designing mining systems and improving methods for the design of support and regulations for the protection of excavations and above-ground structures. In open-pit mining, the banks and rims of quarries are caved. They are made stable by the choice of the proper height and slope angle of the banks and rims, and also by anchoring the slopes, taking into account the structure, physicochemical properties, and loading. Under favorable conditions, self-caving of banks is used for separating rock from the rock mass.

V. V. ZHUKOV

caving

[′kāv·iŋ]
(mining engineering)
A mining procedure, used when the surface is expendable, in which the ore body is undercut and allowed to fall, breaking into small pieces that are recovered by passages (drifts) driven for that purpose; sublevel caving, block caving, and top slicing are examples.
(petroleum engineering)
Collapsing of the walls of a wellbore. Also known as sloughing.
References in periodicals archive ?
Spelunker (A) and Spelunker (B) use the same tunnel in exiting the cave, however, Spelunker (A) reminisces the vivid colors produced on the tunnel walls from the filtered sunlight close to the exit area.
The London-based newspaper The Guardian said British spelunkers have been exploring the vast network of caves in Cuetzalan since the 1970s without arousing any suspicions.
The couple also had the help of spelunkers who donated some 4,000 hours of labor to get the facility ready for its first tour season.
It was only ten years ago that the demise of Roger Whetmore at the hands of his fellow spelunkers, in what is now known is Whetmore Cave, led to sharp divisions of opinion between the former members of this Court about the correct application of Newgarth criminal law.
Caving is also a fantastic option for eco-tourists, especially the Lanquin Caves in Alta Verapaz further north, where spelunkers can see blind fish or magnificent limestone cathedrals.
This March, Ben & Jerry's salutes all of you spelunkers as it celebrates Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough's 20th Birthday.
Spelunkers look at a cave and wonder how to explore its deepest reaches.
Guides provide geologic and cultural history interpretation, and the kids will emerge feeling like spelunkers.
In a remarkable display of discretion, amateur spelunkers Randy Tufts and Gary Tenen kept their find a secret for years, until they gained assurances that the caverns would be preserved, managed and carefully monitored.
The state and a group of local activists are calling on kayakers, spelunkers, hikers.
Then we became spelunkers and made head-lanterns (out of construction paper) to help us see in the dark.